Home Indian Culture Brahm Sutra -Half 3 | HINDUISM AND SANATAN DHARMA

Brahm Sutra -Half 3 | HINDUISM AND SANATAN DHARMA

Brahm Sutra -Half 3 | HINDUISM AND SANATAN DHARMA

[ad_1]

Within the Third Chapter, the Sadhanas or the means of information referring to Para Vidya (increased information) and Apara Vidya (decrease information) have been mentioned. The Fourth Chapter treats of Phala or the Supreme Bliss of attainment of Brahman. Different matters are also handled in it. To start with, nonetheless, a separate dialogue involved with the means of information is handled in just a few Adhikaranas. The rest of the earlier dialogue about Sadhanas is sustained at first. As the primary matter of this Chapter is that of the outcomes or fruits of Brahma Vidya, it’s referred to as Phala Adhyaya.

SYNOPSIS

Adhikarana I: (Sutras 1-2) The meditation on the Atman enjoined by scripture just isn’t an act to be achieved as soon as solely, however is to be repeated time and again until information is attained.

Adhikarana II: (Sutra 3) The meditator engaged in meditation on Brahman is to view or comprehend It as similar along with his personal self.

Adhikarana III: (Sutra 4) In Pratikopasanas the place symbols of Brahman are used for meditation as for example Mano Brahmetyupasita, the meditator is to not take into account the Pratika or image as similar with him.

Adhikarana IV: (Sutra 5) Within the Pratikopasanas, the Pratikas or symbols are to be seen as Brahman and never within the reverse means.

Adhikarana V: (Sutra 6) In meditations on the members of sacrificial acts, the concept of divinity is to be superimposed on the members and never vice versa. Within the instance quoted for example the Udgitha is to be seen as Aditya, not Aditya because the Udgitha.

Adhikarana VI: (Sutras 7-10) One is to hold on his meditations in a sitting posture. Sri Sankara maintains that the rule doesn’t apply to these meditations whose result’s Samyag-darsana however the Sutra provides no trace to that impact.

Adhikarana VII: (Sutra 11) The meditations could also be carried on at any time, and in anywhere, if beneficial to focus of thoughts.

Adhikarana VIII: (Sutra 12) The meditations are to be continued till loss of life. Sri Sankara once more holds that these meditations which result in Samyag-darsana are excepted.

Adhikarana IX: (Sutra 13) Data of Brahman frees one from the results of all previous and future evil deeds.

Adhikarana X: (Sutra 14) Good deeds likewise stop to have an effect on the knower of Brahman.

Adhikarana XI: (Sutra 15) Works which haven’t begun to yield outcomes (Anarabdhakarya) are alone destroyed by information and never these which have already begun to yield fruits (Arabdhakarya).

Adhikarana XII: (Sutras 16-17) From the rule enunciated in Adhikarana X are excepted such sacrificial performances as are enjoined completely (Nitya, compulsory works), as for example the Agnihotra, as a result of they promote the origination of information.

Adhikarana XIII: (Sutra 18) Sacrificial works not mixed with information or meditations additionally assist in the origination of information.

Adhikarana XIV: (Sutra 19) On the exhaustion of Prarabdha work by means of enjoyment, the knower of Brahman attains oneness with It. The Bhoga or enjoyment of the Sutra is, based on Sankara, restricted to the current existence of the seeker, for the reason that full information obtained by him destroys the ignorance which in any other case would result in future embodiments.

AVRITTYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 1 (SUTRAS 1-2)

Meditation on Brahman must be continued

until information is attained

Avrittirasakridupadesat IV.1.1 (478)

The repetition (of listening to, reflection and meditation on Brahman is important) on account of the repeated instruction by the scriptures.

Avrittih: repetition, apply of meditation on Brahman (is important); Asakrit: not solely as soon as, many occasions, repeatedly; Upadesat: due to instruction by the scriptures.

This Sutra states that fixed apply of meditation is important.

Frequent apply of meditation on Brahman is important as there may be instruction to that impact within the Sruti.

Verily, the Self is to be seen, to be mirrored upon, and meditated upon (Bri. Up. II.4.5). The clever aspirant realizing about Brahman ought to attain Brahma-Sakshatkara or direct Self-realisation (Bri. Up. IV.4.21). That’s what we should get your hands on, that’s what we should attempt to perceive (Chh. Up. VIII.7.1).

A doubt arises whether or not the psychological motion (reflection and meditation) referred to in them is to be preformed as soon as solely or repeatedly.

The Purvapakshin maintains that it’s to be noticed as soon as solely as within the case of Prayaja choices and the like.

Allow us to then repeat precisely because the scripture says, i.e., allow us to hear the self as soon as, allow us to mirror on it as soon as, allow us to meditate on it as soon as and nothing extra.

The current Sutra refutes this view and says that listening to, and so on., should be repeated until one attains information of Brahman or direct Self-realisation, simply as paddy is husked until we get rice. There’s the need of repetition until there may be daybreak of information of Brahman. The repetition of psychological acts of reflection and meditation ultimately results in direct Self-realisation. Repetition is to be carried out as a result of scripture provides repeated instruction.

Thus within the Chh. Up. VI.8.7 the instructor repeats 9 occasions the saying, Tat Satyam Sa Atma Tat-Tvam-Asi SvetaketoThat Reality, That Atman, That thou artwork, O Svetaketu! Right here Svetaketu is taught the thriller about Brahman 9 occasions earlier than he understood it.

The analogy of the Prayaja is defective. It’s not to the purpose in any respect as a result of there may be the Adrishta which is the outcome provides fruit at some specific future time within the subsequent world. However right here the result’s straight realised. Direct intution of the Self is a visual outcome to be gained on this very life. Subsequently, if the outcome just isn’t there, the method should be repeated, until the result’s realised. Such acts should be repeated, as a result of they subserve a seen objective.

Once we communicate of the Upasana of the Guru or the king or of the spouse interested by her absent husband, we don’t imply a single act of service or thought however a steady collection of acts and ideas. We are saying in odd life that an individual is dedicated to a instructor or a king if he follows him with a thoughts steadily set on him, and of a spouse whose husband has gone on a journey we are saying that she thinks of him provided that she steadily remembers him with longing.

In Vedanta, Vid (realizing) and Upasati (meditating) are used as similar. That ‘realizing’ implies repetition follows from the truth that within the Vedanta texts the phrases ‘realizing’ and ‘meditating’ are seen for use one within the place of the opposite. In some passages the time period ‘realizing’ is used at first and the time period ‘meditating’ ultimately: thus, e.g., He who is aware of what he is aware of is thus spoken of by me and train me sir, the deity which you meditate on (Chh. Up. IV.1.4; 2.2). Somewhere else the textual content at first speaks of ‘meditating’ and afterward of ‘realizing’; thus e.g., Let a person meditate on thoughts as Brahman and He who is aware of this shines and warms by means of his celeb, fame and glory of countenance (Chh. Up. III.18.1, 6).

Meditation and reflection indicate a repetition of the psychological act. Once we say He meditates on it the continuity of the act of remembrance of the thing is implied. Comparable is the case with reflection additionally.

From this it follows that repetition needs to be practised there additionally, the place the textual content provides instruction as soon as solely. The place, once more, the textual content provides repeated instruction, repeated efficiency of the psychological acts is straight intimated.

When the scripture talking concerning the rice for the sacrifice says, The rice must be crushed the sacrificer understands that the injunction means The rice must be crushed time and again, until it’s free from husk for no sacrifice may be carried out with the rice with its husk on. So when the scripture says, The Self should be seen by means of listening to, reflection and meditation it means the repetition of those psychological processes, as long as the Self just isn’t seen or realised.

Lingaccha IV.1.2 (479)

And on account of the indicatory mark.

Lingat: due to the indicatory mark or signal; Cha: and.

The identical matter is sustained.

An indicatory mark additionally exhibits that repetition is required. Within the Sruti there’s a instructing of repeated meditation. It says that one son can be born if there’s a single act of meditation whereas many sons can be born if there are lots of and repeated acts of meditation. Replicate upon the rays and you’ll have many sons (Chh. Up. I.5.2). Within the Part treating of meditation on the Udgitha the textual content repeats the meditation on the Udgitha seen because the solar, as a result of its result’s one son solely and the clause Replicate upon his rays enjoins a meditation on his manifold rays as resulting in the possession of many sons. This means that the repetition of meditation is one thing well-known. What holds good on this case holds good for different meditations additionally.

Within the case of top notch kind of aspirant with intense purity, dispassion, discrimination and very delicate and sharp mind, a single listening to of that nice sentence Tat-Tvam-Asi Mahavakya can be fairly ample. Repetition would certainly be ineffective for him who is ready to realise the true nature of Brahman even when the Mahavakya Tat-Tvam-Asi is enounced as soon as solely. However such superior souls are very uncommon. Abnormal people who find themselves deeply hooked up to the physique and objects can not attain realisation of Reality by a single enunciation of it. For such individuals repetition is of use. The misguided notion I’m the physique may be destroyed solely by means of fixed meditation or repeated apply. Data can daybreak solely when there may be incessant and frequent meditation.

Repetition has the facility of annihilating this misguided thought regularly. Meditation must be continued until the final hint of physique thought is destroyed. When the physique consciousness is completely annihilated, Brahman shines Itself in all Its pristine glory and purity. The meditator and the meditated turn into one. Individuality vanishes in toto.

If repetition just isn’t mandatory the Chhandogya Upanishad wouldn’t have taught the reality of the good sentence Thou artwork That repeatedly.

Within the Taittiriya Upanishad III.2 we discover that Bhrigu goes a number of occasions to his father Varuna and asks him time and again, to be taught the character of Brahman.

Bhrigu Varuni went to his father Varuna saying, Sir, train me Brahman. He advised him this, viz., meals, breath, the attention, the ear, thoughts and speech. Then he stated once more to him That from whence these beings are born, that by which when born they dwell, that into which they enter at their loss of life, attempt to know that. That’s Brahman.

This injunction about repetition is supposed for these solely who lack in purity and delicate understanding and in whom a single enunciation just isn’t ample to provide them the direct cognition of Brahman.

The person soul is taught step-by-step to be subtler than the physique, and so on., until it’s realised as pure Chaitanya. When we’ve the information of the thing solely, we are able to have full information of the affirmation about it. Within the case of those that have ignorance or doubt or incorrect information, the affirmation (Tat-Tvam-Asi) can not carry on instant realisation however to those that haven’t any such obstruction there can be realisation. Therefore reiteration with reasoning is just for main us to full Vachyartha Jnana.

We observe that males by repeating time and again a sentence which they, on the primary listening to, had understood imperfectly solely, regularly rid themselves of all misconceptions and arrive at a full understanding of the true sense.

All this establishes the conclusion that, within the case of cognition of the Supreme Brahman, the instruction resulting in such realisation could also be repeated.

ATMATVOPASANADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 2

He who meditates on the Supreme Brahman

should comprehend It as similar with himself

Atmeti tupagacchanti grahayanti cha IV.1.3 (480)

However (the Sruti texts) acknowledge (Brahman) because the Self (of the meditator) and likewise train different (to grasp It as such).

Atmeti: because the Self; Tu: however; Upagacchanti: acknowledge, method, realise; Grahayanti: train, make others comprehend, instruct; Cha: additionally.

This Sutra prescribes the method of meditation.

A doubt arises whether or not Brahman is to be comprehended by the Jiva or the person soul as similar with it or separate from it.

The opponent maintains that Brahman is to be comprehended as completely different from the person soul owing to their important distinction, as a result of the person soul is topic to ache, sorrow and distress, whereas the opposite just isn’t.

The current Sutra refutes the view that Brahman is to be comprehended as similar with one’s self. The person is basically Brahman solely. The Jivahood is because of the limiting adjunct, the interior organ or Antahkarana. The Jivahood is illusory. The Jiva is in actuality an embodiment of bliss. It experiences ache and distress on account of the limiting adjunct, Antahkarana.

The Jabalas acknowledge it I’m certainly Thou, O Lord, and Thou artwork certainly myself. Different scriptural texts additionally say the identical factor, I’m Brahman: Aham Brahma Asmi (Bri. Up. I.4.10). Thy self is that this which is inside all (Bri. Up. III.4.1). He’s thy self, the ruler inside, the immortal (Bri. Up. III.7.3). That’s the True, that’s the Self, That thou artwork (Chh. Up. VI.8.7). The texts are to be taken of their main and never secondary sense as in The thoughts is Brahman (Chh. Up. III.18.1), the place the textual content presents the thoughts as a logo for meditation.

Subsequently we’ve to meditate on Brahman because the Self.

You can not say that these imply solely a sense or emotion of oneness, simply as we regard an idol as Vishnu.

Within the latter case we’ve solely a single assertion. However within the Jabala Sruti we’ve a double affirmation, i.e., the identification of Brahman with the person soul with Brahman. The seeming distinction between Jiva and Brahman is unreal. There’s Jivahood or Samsaritva for the person soul until realisation is attained.

Therefore we should repair our minds on Brahman as being the Self.

PRATIKADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 3

The symbols of Brahman shouldn’t be meditated upon

as similar with the meditator

Na pratike na hello sah IV.1.4 (481)

(The meditator is) not (to see the Self) within the image, as a result of he’s not (that).

Na: not; Pratike: within the image (equivalent to Akasa, the solar, the thoughts, and so on.); Na: not; Hello: as a result of; Sah: he.

This and the next two Sutras study the worth of a Pratika or image in worship.

Pratikas, symbols, wouldn’t be thought to be one with us. The meditator can not regard them as being one with him, as they’re separate from him.

Chhandogya Upanishad III.18.1 declares The thoughts is Brahman.

A doubt arises whether or not in such meditations the place the thoughts is taken as a logo of Brahman, the meditator is to determine himself with the thoughts, as within the case of the meditation: I’m Brahman Aham Brahma Asmi.

The Purvapakshin maintains that he ought to, as a result of the thoughts is a product of Brahman and as such it’s one with It. So the meditator, the person soul, is one with Brahman. Subsequently, it follows that the meditator is also one with the thoughts, and therefore he ought to see his Self within the thoughts on this meditation additionally.

The current Sutra refutes this. We should not connect to symbols the concept of Brahman. As a result of the meditator can not comprehend the heterogeneous symbols as being of the character of the Self.

We should not regard Pratikas (symbols or photographs) as being ourselves. They’re completely different from ourselves and can’t be thought to be being similar with ourselves. Nor can we are saying that they being derivatives of Brahman and Brahman being one with Atman, they’re additionally to be handled as one with the Atman. They are often one with Brahman provided that they go above identify and kind and after they go above identify and kind, they won’t be Pratikas.

Atman is Brahman solely when free of Kartritva (doership). Two gold jewels can’t be similar however each may be one with gold.

If the image thoughts is realised as similar with Brahman, then it’s not a logo, simply as once we realise an decoration as gold, it ceases to be an decoration. If the meditating particular person realises his identification with Brahman, then he’s not the Jiva or the person soul, the meditator. The distinctions of meditator, meditation and the meditated exist at first when oneness has not been realised. At any time when there may be the excellence between the meditator and the meditated there may be the method of meditation. The place there may be consciousness of distinction, variety or plurality, the meditator is kind of distinct from the image.

For these causes the self just isn’t meditated in symbols. The meditator is to not see his self within the image.

BRAHMADRISHTYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 4

When meditating on a logo, the image must be thought of

as Brahman and never Brahman because the image

Brahmadrishtirutkarshat IV.1.5 (482)

(The image) is to be seen as Brahman (and never within the reverse means), on account of the exaltation (of the image thereby).

Brahmadrishtih: the view of Brahman, the view within the mild of Brahman; Utkarshat: on account of superiority, due to super-eminence.

The identical dialogue is sustained.

In meditations on symbols as in The thoughts is Brahman, The solar is Brahman, the query is whether or not the image is to be thought of as Brahman, or Brahman because the image.

This Sutra declares that the symbols, the thoughts, the solar, and so on., are to be thought to be Brahman and never within the reverse means. As a result of you possibly can attain elevation or progress by trying upon an inferior factor as a superior factor and never within the reverse means. As it’s a must to behold Brahman in every part and free your self from the concept of differentiation and variety, it’s a must to ponder on these symbols as Brahman.

To view the image as Brahman is kind of correct, however by reversing the order to view Brahman within the mild of the image just isn’t justifiable, due to super-eminence of Brahman over the image.

It might not serve any objective to think about Brahman within the mild of a restricted factor; as a result of it might be solely to degrade the Infinite Lord to the standing of a finite factor. The image must be raised increased in thought to the extent of Brahman however Brahman shouldn’t be introduced all the way down to the extent of the image.

ADITYADIMATYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 5

In meditation on the members of sacrificial actsthe thought of divinity is to be superimposed on the members and never within the reverse means

Adityadimatayaschanga upapatteh IV.1.6 (483)

And the concepts of the solar, and so on., are to be superimposed) on the subordinate members (of sacrificial acts), as a result of (in that means alone the assertion of the scriptures could be) constant.

Adityadimatayah: the concept of the solar, and so on.; Cha: and; Anga: in a subordinate member (of the sacrificial acts); Upapatteh: due to consistency, due to its reasonableness.

A specific occasion is cited to substantiate the previous Sutra.

He who burns up these (solar), let a person meditate upon that which shines yonder because the Udgitha (Chh. Up. I.3.1). One must meditate upon the Saman as fivefold (Chh. Up. II.2.1). Let a person meditate on the sevenfold Saman in speech (Chh. Up. II.8.1). This earth is the Rik, hearth is Saman (Chh. Up. I.6.1).

In meditations related with sacrificial acts as given within the texts quoted, how is the meditation to be carried out? Is the solar to be seen because the Udgitha or the Udgitha because the solar? Between the Udgitha and the solar there may be nothing to point which is superior, as within the earlier Sutra, the place Brahman being pre-eminent, the image was seen as Brahman.

The current Sutra declares that the members of sacrificial acts because the Udgitha are to be seen because the solar and so forth, for the fruit of the sacrificial act is elevated by so doing. The sacrificial work turns into profitable. A scriptural passage, viz., Chh. Up. I.1.10 No matter one performs with information, religion and Upanishad is extra {powerful} expressly declares that information causes the success of sacrificial work.

If we view the Udgitha because the solar, it undergoes a sure ceremonial purification and thereby contributes to the Apurva or Adrishta, the invisible fruit of the entire sacrifice, which ends up in Karma Samriddhi (the fulness of the Karma). If the solar is seen as Udgitha within the reverse means the purification of the solar by this meditation won’t contribute to the Apurva, because the solar just isn’t a member of the sacrificial act.

The members of the sacrificial acts are to be seen because the solar, and so on., if the declaration of the scriptures that the meditations improve the results of the sacrifice is to return true.

The solar, and so on., are increased (Utkarsha) than Udgitha as a result of the solar, and so on., are the fruits attained by Karma. Subsequently, the rule of Utkarsha-buddhi referred to above wants that we should regard and worship Udgitha, and so on., because the solar, and so on.

Should you say that if we regard the solar, and so on., because the Udgitha, the previous being of the character of Karma will give the fruit, that might be incorrect as a result of Upasana itself is a Karma and can give the fruit.

The Udgitha must be raised increased in thought to the extent of the solar, however not the solar introduced all the way down to that of the Udgitha.

On this means a meditator ought to increase himself to the extent of Brahman by considering himself as Brahman, however shouldn’t carry Brahman all the way down to the extent of the person soul.

ASINADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 6 (SUTRAS 7-10)

One is to meditate sitting

Asinah sambhavat IV.1.7 (484)

Sitting (a person is to meditate) on account of the likelihood.

Asinah: sitting; Sambhavat: on account of the likelihood.

The posture of the meditator whereas engaged in meditation is now mentioned.

In Karmanga Upasanas there isn’t any query as as to if they need to be achieved sitting or standing as they rely upon the actual Karma. In pure realisation or excellent instinct there might be no such query because it is determined by the thing of realisation. In different Upasanas sitting is important for meditation.

The Purvapakshin right here maintains that because the meditation is one thing psychological there may be no restriction as to the angle of the physique.

This Sutra says that one has to meditate sitting, as a result of it’s not doable to meditate whereas standing or mendacity down. Sitting is important for meditation as a result of Upasana is the continuity of psychological state and such continuity won’t exist when one walks or runs as a result of then the thoughts will attend to the physique and can’t focus, or when one lies down as a result of then he can be quickly overpowered by sleep.

In Upasana one has to pay attention one’s thoughts on a single object. This isn’t doable if one is standing or mendacity. The thoughts of a standing man is directed on sustaining the physique in an erect place and subsequently incapable of reflection on any delicate matter.

A sitting particular person could simply keep away from these a number of occurrences and is, subsequently, able to hold on his meditation. The sitting posture contributes that composure of thoughts which is the sine qua non of meditation. Meditation is to be practised in a sitting posture, as in that case solely meditation is practicable.

Dhyanaccha IV.1.8 (485)

And on account of meditation.

Dhyanat: on account of meditation; Cha: and.

An argument in help of Sutra 7 is adduced.

Additional, such continuity of thought is Dhyana or meditation. It might probably come solely when the limbs usually are not energetic and the thoughts is calm.

Upasana (worship) being primarily of the character of focus, must be practised in a sitting posture, which is conducive to focus. Focus being an uninterrupted and unintermittent present of thought despatched in the direction of a specific object, the sitting posture turns into indispensable.

The phrase `Upasana’ additionally denotes precisely what meditation means, that’s concentrating on a single object with a hard and fast look, and with none motion of the limbs. That is doable solely in a sitting posture.

Meditation denotes a lengthened carrying of the identical practice of concepts. We ascribe thoughtfulness to these whose thoughts is targeting one and the identical object whereas their look is mounted and their limbs don’t transfer. We are saying that Sri Ramakrishna is considerate. Now such thoughtfulness is simple for individuals who sit. The spouse sits and thinks deeply over her husband gone in a distant journey.

Dhyana or meditation is considering on one topic constantly, with out the inrush of concepts incongruous with the topic of thought. Such meditation is feasible in a sitting posture solely and never whereas mendacity down or standing and so on. Subsequently, a sitting posture must be adopted each for prayers in addition to for meditation.

The distraction of thoughts is minimised when one meditates in a sitting posture.

We, subsequently, conclude herefrom additionally that meditation is the occupation of a sitting particular person.

Achlatvam chapekshya IV1.9 (486)

And on the subject of immobility (the scriptures ascribe meditativeness to the earth).

Achalatvam: immobility, stability, steadiness; Cha: and, certainly; Apekshya: referring to, aiming at, pointing to.

The argument in help of Sutra 7 is sustained.

The phrase ‘cha’ has the pressure of ‘certainly’. Within the Chhandogya Upanishad the basis ‘Dhyana’ or meditation is employed within the sense of motionlessness.

Close to the immobility of the earth in odd eye, the scripture fancies the earth as being engaged in focus, as if it stays mounted in house within the act of pious meditation. It means that such a gradual utility of the thoughts may be attained by meditating solely in a sitting posture.

If the physique is at relaxation, there may be relaxation for the thoughts additionally; if the physique is in movement, i.e., stressed, the thoughts too turns into stressed.

Within the passage, The earth meditates because it have been, meditativeness is attributed to earth on account of its immobility or steadiness. This additionally helps us to deduce that meditation is feasible in a single when he’s sitting and never whereas standing or strolling.

Steadiness accompanies meditation. Steadiness of physique and thoughts is feasible solely whereas sitting and never whereas standing or strolling.

Smaranti cha IV.1.10 (487)

The Smriti passages additionally say (the identical factor).

Smaranti: the Smriti texts say, it’s talked about within the Smritis; Cha: additionally.

The argument in help of Sutra 7 is concluded.

Authoritative authors additionally train of their Smritis {that a} sitting posture subserve the act of meditation, e.g., Having made a agency seat for one’s self on a pure spot (Bhagavad Gita VI.11).

For a similar purpose the Yoga-Sastra teaches completely different postures, viz., Padmasana, Siddhasana, and so on.

EKAGRATADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 7

There is no such thing as a restriction of place with regard to meditation

Yatraikagrata tatraviseshat IV.4.11 (488)

Wherever focus of thoughts (is attained), there (it’s to be practised), there being no specification (as to put).

Yatra: the place, wherever; Ekagrata: focus of thoughts; Tatra: there; Aviseshat: for need of any specification, it not being particularly talked about, as there isn’t any particular path in Sruti.

There are not any particular guidelines concerning the time or place of meditation. At any time when and wherever the thoughts attains focus, we should always meditate. The Sruti says Mano’nukule the place the thoughts feels beneficial.

Anyplace is sweet if focus is attained in that place. The scriptures say, Let a person meditate at no matter time, in no matter place and going through no matter area, he could with ease handle to pay attention his thoughts.

However locations which might be clear, free from pebbles, hearth, mud, noises, standing water, and the like are fascinating, as such locations are congenial to meditation.

However there are not any mounted guidelines to put, time and path.

APRAYANADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 8

Meditations must be continued until loss of life

Aa prayanat tatrapi hello drishtam IV.1.12 (489)

Until loss of life (until one attains Moksha) (meditations must be repeated); for then additionally it’s thus seen in scripture.

Aa prayanat: until loss of life, until Mukti; Tatra: there, then; Api: additionally, even; Hello: as a result of; Drishtam: is seen (within the Sruti).

This Sutra says Upasana (meditation, worship) is to be noticed until loss of life.

Worship is to be continued until loss of life, until one will get Mukti, as a result of it’s present in Sruti, that the worshipper, persevering with so until loss of life, attains the world of Brahman after loss of life.

The primary matter of the current Chapter has established that the meditation on the Atman or Brahman enjoined by the scriptures is to be repeated until information dawns.

The query is now taken up about different meditations that are practised for attaining sure outcomes.

The Purvapakshin maintains that such meditations may be stopped after a sure time. They need to nonetheless give fruits like sacrifices carried out solely as soon as.

The current Sutra declares that they’re to be continued as much as loss of life, as a result of the Sruti and Smriti say so. With no matter thought he passes away from this world (Sat. Br. X.6.3.1). Remembering no matter type of being he ultimately leaves this physique, into that very same kind he even passes, assimilated its being (Bhagavad Gita VIII.6). On the time of loss of life with unmoved thoughts (Bhagavad Gita VIII.10). Let a person on the time of loss of life, take refuge with this triad (Chh. Up. III.17.6). No matter his thought on the time of loss of life with that he goes into Prana and the Prana united with mild, along with the person self, leads on to the world as conceived in the intervening time of loss of life (Pras. Up. IV.2.10). This additionally follows from the comparability to the caterpillar (Bri. Up. IV.4.3) or leech. The leech takes maintain of one other object earlier than it leaves an object.

One can not entertain such a thought on the time of departure of Prana from this physique with out apply for the entire life.

Subsequently, meditations should be practised as much as loss of life.

TADADHIGAMADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 9

Data of Brahman frees one from all previous and future sins

Tadadhigama uttarapurvaghayorasleshavinasau

tadvyapadesat IV.1.13 (490)

On the attainment of this (viz., Brahman) (there takes place) the non-clinging and the destruction of later and earlier sins; as a result of it’s so declared by the scriptures.

Tadadhigama: when that’s realised; Uttarapurvaghayoh: of the next and the earlier sins; Asleshavinasau: non-clinging and destruction; Tadvyapadesat: as a result of Sruti has declared so.

The results of information of Brahman or the state of Jivanmukti is now mentioned.

The complement to the Third Chapter is completed herewith. With the final Adhikarana the matters related with the Third Chapter have come to an finish. From this Adhikarana the Fourth Chapter correct begins. The Fourth Chapter is the Phaladhyaya, i.e., the Chapter referring to the fruits of Brahma Vidya.

The Purvapakshin maintains that emancipation is attained regardless of information, solely after one has skilled results of 1’s sins dedicated earlier than enlightenment as a result of the Smritis declare Karma just isn’t destroyed earlier than it has yielded its results. The legislation of Karma is unrelenting.

This Sutra says that when an individual attains information all his previous sins are destroyed and future sins don’t cling to him.

Karma has probably its energy of bringing its results however that energy may be nullified and overcome by information of Brahman. Prayaschittas (expiatory acts) have the facility of cleaning sin. Saguna-Brahma-Vidya cleanses all sins. Nirguna-Brahma-Vidya places an finish to company or doership and destroys all sins. Therefore no future doership can come to him and the results of the complete previous doership vanish when information dawns. In any other case there can be no liberation as Karma is Anadi (beginningless). Whether it is stated that emancipation is prompted just like the fruits of Karma, it will likely be transient and never everlasting.

Additional, the outcomes of Jnana should be direct and instant. So all sins vanish when one attains information of Brahman or Self-realisation.

The scripture declares that future sins which may be presumed to cling to the agent don’t cling to him who is aware of. As water doesn’t cling to lotus leaf, so no evil deed clings to him who is aware of this (Chh. Up. IV.14.3). Equally scripture declares the destruction of earlier collected evil deeds. Because the fibres of the Ishika reed when thrown into the hearth are burnt, thus all sins are burnt (Chh. Up. V.24.3). The extinction of works the next passage additionally declares: The fetter of the guts is damaged, all doubts are solved, all his works are destroyed when He who’s excessive and low is seen (Mun. Up. II.2.8).

As regards the verses which say that no Karma is destroyed, however by producing its results, that holds good within the case of odd males who’re in ignorance and who haven’t any information of Brahman. It doesn’t maintain good within the case of these enlightened sages who’ve information of Brahman.

The knower of Brahman feels and realises thus: That Brahman whose nature it’s to be always neither agent not enjoyer, and which is thus opposed in being to the soul’s beforehand established state of company and delight that Brahman am I; therefore I neither was an agent, nor an enjoyer at any earlier time, nor am I such these days, nor shall I be such at any future time.

On this means solely the ultimate emancipation is feasible; for in any other case, i.e., if the chain of works which has been working on from eternity couldn’t be minimize brief, liberation might by no means happen. Emancipation can not rely upon locality, time and particular causes, because the fruit of works is; as a result of therefrom it might comply with that the fruit of information is non-permanent.

Subsequently, it’s a longtime conclusion that there outcomes the extinction of all sins on attaining Brahman.

ITARASAMSLESHADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 10

Equally good work don’t have an effect on the knower of Brahman

Itarasyapyevamasamsleshah pate tu IV.1.14 (491)

Thus in the identical means, there may be non-clinging of the opposite (i.e., Punya or advantage, good works) additionally; however at loss of life (liberation, i.e., Videha-Mukti is for certain).

Itarasya: of the opposite; Tu: additionally; Evam: thus, in the identical means; Asamsleshah: non-clinging; Pate: at loss of life; Tu: however, certainly.

Dialogue on the consequence of Brahma Jnana (the information of Brahman) is sustained.

As within the case of sin, so benefit or advantage can not connect to the knower of Brahman. In any other case such benefit can be an obstruction to liberation. When doership goes, benefit should go like sin. The results of benefit is beneath that of Jnana. Advantage and sin must be left behind. When each are transcended, liberation is certain at loss of life.

A knower of Brahman has no thought of company. He’s not touched by good works additionally. He goes past advantage and vice. He overcomes each (Bri. Up. IV.4.22).

Even there the place the textual content mentions evil deeds solely, we should take into account good deeds additionally to be implied therein, as a result of the outcomes of the latter are also inferior to the outcomes of information.

Advantage is also a reason behind bondage and stands in the way in which of liberation. For a knower of Brahman all his collected deserves and demerits are destroyed. Thus his deserves and sins being completely inoperative, his salvation essentially follows at loss of life.

ANARABDHADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 11

Works which haven’t begun to yield outcomes are alone destroyed by information and never these which have already begun to bear fruits

Anarabdhakarye eva tu purve tadavadheh IV.1.15 (492)

However solely these former (works) whose results haven’t but begun (are destroyed by information; as a result of the scripture states) that (i.e., the loss of life of the physique) to be the time period.

Anarabdhakarye: within the case of these works, the results of which haven’t begun to function, i.e. to yield fruits or outcomes; Eva: solely; Tu: however; Purve: former works; Tadavadheh: that (loss of life) being the restrict, due to ready until loss of life.

Dialogue on the consequence of Brahma Jnana is sustained.

Within the final two Adhikaranas (matters) it has been said that every one the previous works of a knower of Brahman are destroyed. Previous works are of two sorts, viz., Sanchita (collected works) these which haven’t but begun to yield outcomes and Prarabdha, i.e., these works whose results have already begun to function and have produced the physique by means of which the aspirant has attained Brahma Jnana or information of Brahman.

The Purvapakshin maintains that each these are destroyed, as a result of the Mundaka Upanishad says that every one his works are destroyed. He thereby overcomes each. This refers to all works with none distinction, all works no matter should be regarded to endure destruction.

Additional the sage who has attained Self-realisation is a non-doer. He has no thought or feeling of company. His thought of non-doership is identical on the subject of Sanchita or Prarabdha. Therefore each these works are destroyed when one attains information of Brahman or the Supreme Self.

This Sutra refutes this view and declares that solely Sanchita Karmas or collected works whose fruits haven’t but begun to function are destroyed by information however not the Prarabdha. Prarabdha Karmas are destroyed solely by being labored out. These works whose results have begun and whose outcomes have been half loved, i.e., these very works to which there’s due the current state of existence wherein the information of Brahman arises and never destroyed by that information. This view is based on the scriptural passage For him there may be delay solely so long as he’s not delivered from this physique, after which he’s one with Brahman (Chh. Up. VI.14.2), which fixes the loss of life of the physique because the time period of the assertion of the attainment of ultimate launch.

If it weren’t so, then there could be no lecturers of information.

Subsequently, the Prarabdha Karmas usually are not destroyed by information.

Whether it is stated that fireside should destroy all seeds, the reply is that what has begun to function, like a potter’s wheel, will need to have its operation. Mithya Jnana (the misguided information of multiplicity) although negated by Jnana, will persist for some time (Badhitanuvritti).

Every man’s interior realisation can’t be denied or disputed by one other. This reality is said by the outline of the Sthitaprajna within the Bhagavad Gita.

The Data of Brahman in a knower or a sage can not test the Prarabdha Karma, simply as an archer has no management over the arrows already discharged, which involves relaxation solely when its momentum is exhausted. The liberated sage should sustain this physique so long as the momentum of Prarabdha Karmas lasts. When the Prarabdha Karmas are labored out or exhausted the physique falls off and he attains Videha-Mukti or disembodied salvation.

The ultimate dialogue, subsequently, is that information results the destruction of these works solely whether or not good or evil, whose results haven’t but begun to function.

AGNIHOTRADYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 12 (SUTRAS 16-17)

Everlasting compulsory works enjoined by the Vedas

for various Asramas are to not be given up

Agnihotradi tu tatkaryayaiva taddarsanat IV.1.16 (493)

However the Agnihotra and the like (have a tendency) in the direction of the identical impact, information (liberation), as a result of that’s seen from the scriptures.

Agnihotradi: day by day Agnihotra, and so on., day by day providing of oblations to the perpetually maintained hearth; Tu: however; Tatkarya: have a tendency in the direction of the identical outcome as that (information); Eva: solely; Taddarsanat: that being seen from the scriptures.

Works of everlasting obligation (Nitya Karmas) enjoined by the Vedas equivalent to Agnihotra have a tendency in the direction of the identical impact, i.e., have the identical impact as information. As a result of that is declared by the texts equivalent to the next, Brahmanas search to know him by the research of the Vedas, by sacrifices, by presents (Bri. Up. IV.4.22).

However an objection is raised as information and works have completely different results, it’s not doable that they need to have one and the identical impact.

It’s noticed, we reply, that curd and poison whose odd results are fever and loss of life have for his or her results satisfaction and a flourishing state of the physique, if the curd is combined with sugar and the poison taken whereas sure Mantras are recited. Even so works if joined with information could impact ultimate emancipation.

The Purvapakshin maintains that even compulsory works (Nitya Karmas) equivalent to Agnihotra which don’t give any fruits however that are enjoined by the scriptures as a form of self-discipline are destroyed by the daybreak of information, simply as different works achieved with needs, as a result of the concept of non-agency of the knower of Brahman is identical with respect to each.

This Sutra refutes this view and declares that the common compulsory works usually are not destroyed.

Compulsory duties train a purifying affect on the guts and are useful to the origination of information. They contribute not directly to information i.e., liberation. They subserve ultimate emancipation instantly. Subsequently, their outcomes persist until loss of life.

Ato’nyapi hello ekeshamubhayoh IV.1.17 (494)

For (there may be) additionally (a category of excellent works) apart from this, based on some. (There’s settlement) of each (lecturers, Jaimini and Baadarayana) (as to the destiny of these works).

Atah: from this; Anya: completely different; Api: additionally; Hello: as a result of, certainly; Ekesham: of some (Sakhas); Ubhayoh: of each.

There’s additionally a category of excellent works completely different from works of everlasting obligation (Nitya Karmas just like the day by day Agnihotra and the like) that are carried out with a view to a fruit. The next assertion of some Sakhas is made on the subject of these: His pals get his good works and enemies his evil actions.

Each lecturers, Jaimini and Baadarayana, are of the opinion that works carried out for the fulfilment of some particular need don’t contribute in the direction of the origination of true information.

VIDYAJNANASADHANADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 13

Sacrificial works not mixed with information or meditation

additionally assist in the origination of information

Yadeva vidyayeti hello IV.4.18 (495)

As a result of the textual content no matter he does with information intimates this.

Yadeva: no matter; Vidyaya: with information; Iti: thus, this, so; Hello: as a result of.

Nitya Karmas (common compulsory works) which assist the origination of information are of two sorts, viz., these mixed with meditations and people unaccompanied by information or meditations.

The Purvapakshin maintains that work mixed with meditations helps the origination of information as it’s superior to work achieved with out meditation.

The current Sutra refutes it and says that within the assertion That alone which is carried out with information turns into extra {powerful} (Chh. Up. I.1.10) the comparative diploma signifies that works achieved with out information, not mixed with meditations usually are not altogether ineffective, although the opposite class is extra {powerful}.

Even odd Agnihotra has Virya (energy) however Agnihotra confirmed by Vidya (Upasana) is stronger (Viryavattara). Agnihotra if accompanied by information possesses a larger functionality of originating information and, subsequently, is of superior causal effectivity with regard to the realisation of the self, whereas the identical works if devoid of information possess no such superiority.

ITARAKSHAPANADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 14

After having fun with the fruits of Prarabdha Karma

the knower turns into one with Brahman

Bhogenatvitare kshapayitva sampadyate IV.1.19 (496)

However having exhausted by enjoyment the opposite two works (viz., good and evil works, which have begun to yield fruits), he turns into one with Brahman.

Bhogena: by enjoyment; Tu: however; Itare: of the opposite two works (benefit and demerit); Kshapayitva: having exhausted; Sampadyate: turns into united with Brahman, turns into one with Brahman, obtains, joins.

This Sutra concludes with the reply to the query What turns into of the Prarabdha portion of the illumined soul’s work, which has introduced his current life into existence.

It has been proven that every one good and evil deeds whose results haven’t but begun are destroyed by the facility of information of Brahman. The 2 others then again, i.e., these good and evil works whose results have begun, a person has at first to exhaust by the fruition of their penalties, after which he turns into one with Brahman. This seems from scriptural passages equivalent to for him there may be delay as long as he’s not delivered from the physique, then he’ll turn into one with Brahman (Chh. Up. VI.14.2), and Being Brahman he goes to Brahman (Bri. Up. IV.4.6).

The Purvapakshin argues that the knower of Brahman will proceed to see variety even after loss of life, simply as he sees plurality whereas residing: analogously to the visible look of a double moon which can proceed even after it has been cognised as false. He doesn’t attain oneness with Brahman even after loss of life.

This Sutra refutes it and declares that the Prarabdha works are destroyed by means of enjoyment. Although the knower of Brahman has to stay on this world as a liberated sage or Jivanmukta, but he attains oneness with Brahman at loss of life.

When the Prarabdha Karmas are exhausted by being labored out, he not beholds any plurality on account of the absence of any trigger just like the Prarabdha. He definitely turns into one with Brahman as all works together with Prarabdha are destroyed at loss of life.

Thus Brahma Jnana destroys Karmas (Sanchita) which haven’t begun to bear fruit. These which have begun to bear fruit (Prarabdha) should be labored out by enjoyment. There is no such thing as a escape even on the a part of the enlightened soul from the operation of the legislation of Prarabdha.

The Purvapakshin once more argues {that a} new mixture of works will originate a brand new fruition. Not so, we reply; the seed of all such fruition is destroyed. What on the loss of life of the physique, might originate a brand new interval of fruition, is barely a brand new set of works and works rely upon false information. However such false information is completely destroyed by excellent information of Brahman.

When, subsequently, the works whose results have begun are destroyed, the liberated sage who is aware of Brahman essentially enters into the state of perfected isolation or Absolute Kaivalya.

Thus ends the First Pada (Part 1) of the Fourth Chapter (Adhyaya IV) of the Brahma Sutras or the Vedanta Philosophy.

INTRODUCTION

Within the earlier Part it was proven that one attains Jivanmukti when the Sanchita Karmas or the collected works which haven’t as but begun to bear fruits are destroyed, and Videhamukti at loss of life when the Prarabdha Karma is destroyed.

This Part is dedicated to the mode of departure of the enlightened and the unenlightened souls on the time of leaving the physique. The trail of the gods, the Devayana, by which the knower of the Saguna Brahman travels after loss of life, is described. The Sutrakara begins by explaining on the premise of scriptural statements the successive steps by which the soul passes out of the physique at loss of life. The departure of the soul is identical within the case of him who possesses the decrease information and of him who’s destitute of all information.

SYNOPSIS

Adhikarana I: (Sutras 1-2) On the time of loss of life of the knower of Saguna Brahman, the features of the organs get merged in thoughts.

Adhikarana II: (Sutra 3) On the time of loss of life of the knower of Saguna Brahman, the operate of the thoughts is merged within the Prana.

Adhikarana III: (Sutras 4-6) On the time of loss of life of the knower of Saguna Brahman, the operate of Prana is merged within the particular person soul or Jiva.

Adhikarana IV: (Sutra 7) The mode of departure from the physique as much as the way in which is frequent to each a knower of Saguna Brahman and an odd man. Each cross by means of the identical phases as much as the doorway of the soul along with the delicate parts and so forth into the Nadis.

Adhikarana V: (Sutras 8-11) The merging of fireplace, and so on., of loss of life within the Highest Deity just isn’t absolute merging. An entire absorption of the weather takes place solely when ultimate emancipation is attained.

Adhikarana VI: (Sutras 12-14) The Pranas of a knower of the Nirguna Brahman don’t depart from the physique at loss of life.

Adhikarana VII: (Sutra 15) The organs of the knower of the Nirguna Brahman get merged in It at loss of life.

Adhikarana VIII: (Sutra 16) The Kalas of the knower of the Nirguna Brahman attain absolute non-distinction with Brahman at loss of life.

Adhikarana IX: (Sutra 17) The soul of the knower of the Saguna Brahman involves the guts on the time of loss of life and thence goes out by means of the Sushumna. The soul of the ignorant man goes out via another Nadi.

Adhikarana X: (Sutras 18-19) The departing soul of a knower of the Saguna Brahman follows the rays of the solar after loss of life which exist at night time in addition to throughout day, and goes to Brahmaloka.

Adhikarana XI: (Sutras 20-21) The soul of the knower of the Saguna Brahman goes to Brahmaloka even when he dies through the southern course of the solar (Dakshinayana).

VAGADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 1 (SUTRAS 1-2)

On the time of loss of life the features of the organs

are merged within the thoughts

Vangmanasi darsanacchabdacca IV.2.1 (497)

Speech is merged in thoughts, as a result of it’s so seen, and there are scriptural statements (to that impact).

Vak: speech; Manasi: within the thoughts; Darsanat: as a result of it’s so seen or noticed, due to the scriptural declaration; Sabdat: due to the phrase of the Vedas, due to the assertion of the Smriti; Cha: additionally, and.

This Sutra says that speech merges within the thoughts at loss of life.

Until now Jivanmukti or liberation whereas residing is described. Now the attainment of Brahmaloka by going alongside the trail of gods (Devayana) after loss of life goes to be described.

In regards to the technique of dying we’ve the next passage, When a person departs from right here his speech merges in his thoughts, his thoughts in Prana, Prana in hearth and hearth within the Highest Deity (Chh. Up. VI.6.1).

Now a doubt right here arises whether or not the organ of speech as such will get merged within the thoughts or solely its operate.

The Purvapakshin maintains that the organ itself is merged within the thoughts as there isn’t any point out within the textual content concerning the operate of speech getting merged.

The current Sutra refutes this view and decides that solely the operate of the organ of speech is merged within the thoughts.

The merging is all the time of the impact within the trigger. Speech just isn’t an impact of the thoughts. Subsequently, the organ of speech can not merge within the thoughts. However Vrittis (useful manifestations) can merge in one thing which isn’t its trigger. As an illustration, warmth which is the operate of fireplace originates from gas and extinguished in water.

We see the manifestation of speech ceasing in a dying man, although his thoughts continues to be functioning. None sees the organ of speech being merged within the thoughts.

So expertise additionally teaches that the operate of speech and never the organ itself will get merged in thoughts.

Ata eva cha sarvanyanu IV.2.2 (498)

And for a similar purpose all (sense-organs) comply with (thoughts, i.e., get their features merged in it).

Ata eva: therefore; Cha: and, additionally; Sarvani: all (organs); Anu (Anugacchanti): after (comply with).

This Sutra intimates that the features of all of the organs merge within the thoughts on the time of loss of life.

For a similar causes (common expertise and corroborative assertion of Sruti) as said in Sutra 1, the features of all the opposite sense-organs comply with, i.e., get merged within the thoughts. The hearth is verily the Udana, for he whose mild has gone out involves a brand new start along with his senses merged within the thoughts (Pras. Up. III.9).

Just like the speech it’s noticed that the attention and different senses discontinue their features, whereas the thoughts continues to behave. As a result of the organs themselves can’t be absorbed, and since the textual content admits of that interpretation we conclude that the completely different organs comply with after, i.e., are merged within the thoughts solely so far as their features are involved.

MANO’DHIKARANAM: TOPIC 2

The operate of thoughts is merged in Prana

Tanmanah prana uttarat IV.2.3 (499)

That thoughts (is merged) in Prana (as is seen) from the next clause (of the Sruti cited).

Tat: that; Manah: thoughts; Prana: within the Prana; Uttarat: from the next clause (of the Sruti).

It has been proven that the passage speech is merged in thoughts means a merging of the operate solely. A doubt right here arises whether or not the next clause thoughts is breath additionally means to intimate a merging of the operate solely or of that to which the operate belongs.

The Purvapakshin maintains that right here it’s thoughts itself and never its operate that will get merged in Prana, as Prana may be stated to be the fabric reason behind thoughts. In help of his assertion he quotes the next textual content: Thoughts consists of meals, Prana of water (Chh. Up. VI.6.5); Water despatched forth earth (VI.2.4). When thoughts, subsequently, is merged in Prana, it’s the identical factor as earth being merged in water, for thoughts is meals or earth, and Prana is water, causal substance and impact being non-different. Therefore the Sruti right here speaks not of the operate of the thoughts, however of thoughts itself getting merged in Prana.

This Sutra refutes this view. For a similar purpose it’s the psychological Vrittis (features) that get merged in Prana, as a result of in deep sleep and in approaching loss of life, we see the psychological features stopping whereas the Prana (breath) is energetic. The thoughts just isn’t derived from Prana, and therefore can not merge in it. Breath or Prana just isn’t the causal substance of thoughts. The relation of causality by an oblique course of doesn’t suffice to indicate that thoughts is de facto merged in Prana. Have been it so, then thoughts would even be merged in earth, earth in water, breath in water. Neither is there on the choice contemplated any proof of thoughts having originated from that water which has handed over into breath.

Subsequently, thoughts can not itself be merged in Prana. The operate of the thoughts solely is merged in Prana.

ADHYAKSHADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 3 (SUTRAS 4-6)

The operate of Prana is merged within the Jiva

So’dhyakshe tadupagamadibhyah IV.2.4 (500)

That (Prana) is merged within the ruler (particular person soul or Jiva) on account of the (statements as to the Pranas) coming to it and so forth.

Sah: that (Prana); Adhyakshe: within the ruler (the Jiva); Tadupagamadibhyah: on account of the (statements as to the Pranas) coming to it and so forth.

Prana is merged in hearth (Chh. Up. VI.8.6). A doubt arises now whether or not based on the phrase of the scripture, the operate of Prana is merged in hearth or within the particular person soul which is the ruler of the physique and senses.

In keeping with the Purvapakshin we should conclude that Prana is merged in hearth solely.

The current Sutra justifies its view as a result of statements about Pranas coming to the Jiva, and so on., are present in scriptural passages.

All of the Pranas method the departing man on the time of loss of life (Bri. Up. IV.3.38). One other passage once more specifically declares that the Prana with its 5 features follows the person soul. After him thus departing the Prana departs, and that the opposite Pranas comply with that Prana. And after the Prana thus departing all the opposite Pranas depart (Bri. Up. IV.4.2).

The textual content cited in Sutra 1, When the person departs from right here, his speech merges in thoughts, thoughts in Prana, Prana in hearth and hearth within the Highest Deity (Chh. Up. VI.8.6), doesn’t, nonetheless, contradict this view, as the next Sutra signifies.

Bhuteshu tacchruteh IV.2.5 (501)

Within the (delicate) parts (is merged) (the Jiva with the Pranas) as it’s seen from the Sruti.

Bhuteshu: within the parts; Tat sruteh: as that may be understood from Sruti, from the Sruti texts to that impact, there being a Vedic assertion about that.

This Sutra amplifies the earlier one.

The soul amongst with Prana rests within the delicate parts (Bhuta-sukshma). That is clear from the Sruti Pranastejasi.

The soul united with the Prana takes up its abode throughout the delicate parts which accompany hearth and types the seed of the longer term gross physique. This we conclude from the clause, Prana in warmth. However this passage intimates that the Prana takes up its abode and never that the soul along with the Prana takes up its abode.

We reply, it doesn’t matter. The previous Sutra intercalates the soul within the interval between Prana and hearth. We could say shortly of a person who first travels from Haridwar to Ayodhya after which from Ayodhya to Benares that he travels from Haridwar to Benares. The passage below dialogue, subsequently, implies that the soul along with the Prana abides within the parts related to hearth. The Prana is first merged within the particular person soul after which the soul with the Prana takes its abode within the positive essence of the gross parts, hearth and so on., the seed of the longer term physique.

However how are you entitled to attract within the different parts additionally, whereas the textual content solely speaks of that? To this query the subsequent Sutra provides a solution.

The Prana becoming a member of the soul, merged not solely in Tejas however on the identical time in different parts too. This may be understood from Sruti. It’s stated to merge solely in Tejas, as a result of Tejas (hearth), is the predominating issue there. That soul is united with the essence of the earth, of the water, of the air, of the Akasa, of the hearth (Bri. Up. IV.4.5).

Naikasmin darsayato hello IV.2.6 (502)

(The soul with Prana is merged) not in a single aspect solely, for each (the Sruti and Smriti) declare this (or declare so).

Na: not; Ekasmin: in a single; Darsayatah: (each the Sruti and Smriti) declare so, each the Sruti and Smriti present; Hello: as, for, as a result of.

When the soul leaves one physique on the time of loss of life and goes in from one other, it along with the delicate physique abides within the delicate essence of all of the gross parts and never in hearth solely, as a result of all the weather are wanted for a future physique. The brand new physique consists of assorted parts. This matter is said within the query and reply concerning the waters referred to as man (Chh. Up. V.3.3). Vide III.1.2.

When the soul attains one other physique he doesn’t relaxation in Prana alone, however goes with the delicate parts of all the weather. The query and reply within the Sruti present his.

A passage within the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad declares that the soul’s embodiment is because of Karma, for the abode consisting of Graha (Indriyas or senses) and Atigraha (Vishayas or objects) is the impact of Karma. Right here the delicate parts are referred to as the abode as a result of they’re the stuff of which the brand new physique is made. These two views or passages don’t contradict one another.

ASRITYUPAKRAMADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 4

The mode of departure from the physique as much as the way in which is frequent to each the knower of the Saguna Brahman and an odd man

Samana chasrityupakramadamritatvam chanuposhya IV.2.7 (503)

And customary (is the mode of departure on the time of loss of life for each the knower of the Saguna Brahman and the ignorant) as much as the start of their methods; and the immortality (of the knower of the Saguna Brahman is barely relative) with out having burnt (ignorance).

Samana: frequent; Cha: and; Asrityupakramat: as much as the start of their methods; Amritatvam: immortality; Cha: and; Anuposhya: with out burning, with out dissolution.

There is no such thing as a departure for the knower of Nirguna Brahman. His Pranas are absorbed in Brahman.

The Purvapakshin maintains that the mode of departure from the physique for the knower of Saguna Brahman and the ignorant or the odd man must be completely different, as a result of they attain completely different abodes after loss of life. The knower of Saguna Brahman goes to Brahmaloka whereas the odd man is reborn on this world.

The current Sutra says that the knower of the Saguna Brahman enters the Sushumna Nadi at loss of life after which goes out of the physique after which enters the Devayana or the trail of the gods whereas the odd ignorant man enters another Nadi and goes by one other technique to have rebirth.

However the mode of departure at loss of life is frequent to each until they enter on their respective methods.

Chhandogya Upanishad VIII.6.6 and Kathopanishad II.3.16 declare There are 100 and extra Nadis within the inside of the guts, of which just one leads from the guts to the pinnacle; by that, progressing upwards, the departing soul attains immortality, i.e., emancipation; all the opposite Nadis are for the egress of the odd folks for present process bondage of frequent births and deaths.

SAMSARAVYAPADESADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 5 (SUTRAS 8-11)

The dissolution of fireplace and so on., on the time of loss of life

within the Supreme Deity is barely relative

Tadapiteh samsaravyapadesat IV.2.8 (504)

That (positive physique lasts) as much as the attainment of Brahman (by means of information), as a result of (the scriptures) declare the state of relative existence (until then).

Tat: that, mixture of the weather, the sum whole of the delicate parts; Apiteh: until the attainment of Brahman (by means of information); Samsaravyapadesat: as a result of (scriptures) declare the state of relative existence.

Within the textual content cited in Sutra 1, we’ve And hearth is merged within the Highest Deity. The that means is that the hearth of the dying man along with the person soul, the Prana, the combination of the organs and the opposite parts is merged in Brahman.

We now have to think about of what sort that merging is.

The Purvapakshin holds that it’s an absolute absorption of issues merged, as it’s proved that these issues have the Highest Deity for his or her causal mater. For it has been established that the Deity is the causal substance of all issues, which have an origin. Subsequently that passing into the state of non-separation is an absolute one. That is the ultimate dissolution. Everybody attains the ultimate emancipation at loss of life.

This Sutra says that this merging just isn’t absolute merging. Though Brahman is the causal substance of these parts, they’re on the time of loss of life, as within the case of deep sleep and a Pralaya of the world, merged in it solely in such a means as to live on in a seminal situation or seed state. Solely the features of those parts are merged and never the weather themselves.

These delicate parts, hearth and so forth, which kind the abode of listening to and the opposite organs persist as much as ultimate launch from the Samsara, which is attributable to excellent information, as a result of the scriptures declare that until then the Jiva or the person soul is topic to relative existence. Some souls enter the womb for embodied existence as natural beings; others go into inorganic matter, based on their work and based on their information (Katha Up. II.5.7).

In any other case the limiting adjuncts of each soul would on the time of loss of life be absorbed and the soul would enter into absolute union with Brahman. Each dying particular person will attain Brahman. This could render all scriptural injunction and scriptural doctrine equally ineffective.

Bondage which is because of incorrect information, can’t be dissolved however by means of excellent information (Samyag Jnana). If the merging at loss of life have been absolute, then there might be no rebirth.

Sukshmam pramanatascha tathopalabdheh IV.2.9 (505)

(This positive physique) is delicate (by nature) and dimension, as a result of it’s so noticed.

Sukshmam: delicate; Pramanatah: as regards dimension; Cha: and; Tatha: thus, so; Upalabdheh: as a result of it’s skilled, it being noticed.

The elementary matter of fireplace and the opposite parts which kind the substratum of the soul, when passing out of this physique, should be delicate in its nature and extent. This follows from the scriptural passages, which declare that it passes out by the Nadis and so forth.

Its thinness renders it able to passing out by means of the skinny and delicate Nadi and its transparency is the reason for its not being stopped or obstructed by any gross substance, and never being seen by the by-standers when it passes out at loss of life.

Nopamardenatah IV.2.10 (506)

Subsequently, (this delicate physique is) not (destroyed) by the destruction (of the gross physique).

Na: not; Upamardena: by the destruction; Atah: subsequently, due to this purpose.

On account of this nice subtlety the delicate physique just isn’t destroyed by what destroys the gross physique, viz., burning and the like.

Asyaiva chopapatteresha ushma IV.2.11 (507)

And to this (delicate physique) alone does this (bodily) warmth belong, as a result of this (solely) is feasible.

Asya: of the delicate physique; Eva: verily, definitely, alone; Cha: and, additionally; Upapatteh: it being doable, due to chance; Esha: this; Ushma: (bodily) warmth.

To that very same delicate physique belongs the heat which we understand within the residing physique, via contact. That bodily warmth just isn’t felt within the physique after loss of life, whereas such qualities as kind, color and so forth, proceed to be perceived. The bodily warmth is felt so long as there may be life. It follows from this that the warmth resides in one thing completely different from the physique, as ordinarily recognized. The delicate physique imparts its personal warmth to the gross physique and retains it heat so long as it stays alive. Scripture additionally says, He’s heat if going to dwell; chilly if going to die.

PRATISHEDHADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 6 (SUTRAS 12-14)

The Pranas of the knower of Brahman

don’t depart on the time of loss of life

Pratishedhaditi chenna sarirat IV.2.12 (508)

If or not it’s stated (that the Pranas of 1 who is aware of Brahman don’t depart) on account of the denial made by the Sruti, (we are saying) not so, (as a result of the scripture denies the departure of the Pranas) from the person soul (and never from the physique).

Pratishedhat: on account of the denial; Iti: so; Chet: if (if or not it’s argued); Na: not so, you can not say so; Sarirat: from the person soul.

This Sutra consists of two components, viz., an objection and its reply. The objection portion is ‘Pratishedhaditi chet’. The reply portion is `Na sarirat; Spashto hyekesham’.

This Sutra provides the view of the Purvapakshin whereas the thirteenth and fourteenth Sutras state the Siddhanta or appropriate doctrine.

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad declares, However as to the person who doesn’t need, who not wanting, free of needs, is happy in his needs, or needs the Self solely, of him, the very important airs (Pranas) don’t depart (Bri. Up. IV.4.6). From this specific denial, forming a part of the upper information, it follows that the Pranas don’t cross out of the physique of him who is aware of Brahman. This Sruti passage refers to at least one who is aware of the Nirguna Brahman. It declares that his Pranas don’t depart at loss of life.

The Purvapakshin maintains that the passage quoted doesn’t deny the departure of the Pranas from the physique however from the person soul. If the Pranas don’t depart from the physique there can be no loss of life in any respect. That is made clear from the Madhyandina recension which says From him the very important spirits don’t depart.

Subsequently, the soul of a knower of Brahman passes out of the physique with the Pranas.

The subsequent Sutra refutes this view.

Spashto hyekesham IV.2.13 (509)

For (the denial of the soul’s departure) is evident (within the texts) of some colleges.

Spashtah: clear; Hello: for; Ekesham: of some Sakhas or colleges; the assertion of some Srutis.

The Pranas don’t depart from the physique within the case of a liberated sage. That is made clear from the Sruti texts like: Yajnavalkya stated Artabhaga, when the liberated man dies, do his Pranas go up from him or do they not? No replied Yajnavalkya, they merge in him solely (Bri. Up. III.2.11).

If the Pranas depart with the soul from the physique, then the soul will certainly take a rebirth. Therefore there can be no emancipation.

Subsequently, the Pranas don’t depart from the physique within the case of 1 who is aware of Brahman.

Smaryate cha IV.2.14 (510)

And Smriti additionally says that.

Smaryate: the Smriti says, it’s talked about within the Smritis; Cha: and.

Within the Mahabharata additionally it’s stated that those that know Brahman don’t go or depart. He who has turn into the Self of all beings and has an entire instinct of all, at his means the gods themselves are perplexed, in search of for the trail of him who has no path (Mahabharata: XII.270.22).

VAGADILAYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 7

The Pranas (organs) and parts of the knower of the Nirguna Brahman get merged in It at loss of life

Tani pare tatha hyaha IV.2.15 (511)

These (Pranas, parts) (are merged) within the Supreme Brahman, for thus the (scripture) says.

Tani: these; Pare: within the Supreme Brahman; Tatha: thus, so; Hello: as a result of; Aha: (the Sruti) says.

These, i.e., sense-organs denoted by the time period ‘Prana’ and the weather of him who is aware of the Supreme Brahman are merged when he dies in the identical Supreme Brahman. Why? As a result of scripture declares that Thus these sixteen components of this witness, the Purusha, having their aim in Him are dissolved on reaching Him in Him (Pras. Up. VI.5).

However one other textual content which refers to him who is aware of teaches that the components are also merged in one thing completely different from the Highest Self. The fifteen components enter into their parts (Mun. Up. III.2.7). No, we reply. This latter passage is anxious with the odd view of the matter. It intimates the tip from a relative stand-point, based on which the entire mixture of the components of him who is aware of the Supreme Brahman is merged in Brahman solely, simply because the illusory snake is merged within the rope.

There’s thus no contradiction.

Although ordinarily the senses and the weather merge of their causal substances, but within the case of the Jnani they merge in Brahman.

AVIBHAGADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 8

The Kalas of the knower of the Nirguna Brahman attain

absolute non-distinction with Brahman at loss of life

Avibhago vachanat IV.2.16 (512)

(Absolute) non-distinction (with Brahman of the components merged takes place) based on the assertion (of the scriptures).

Avibhagah: non-distinction; Vachanat: on account of the assertion (of the scriptures).

Thus these sixteen constituents or Kalas, viz., eleven senses and 5 delicate parts, belonging to the seer, i.e., the liberated sage who attains the Supreme Brahman loses his distinction and disappears in Him. There names and types are destroyed; and other people communicate of the Purusha solely. Then he turns into partless and deathless (Pras. Up. VI.5).

The Kalas within the case of the knower of Brahman get completely merged within the Highest Brahman. Within the case of an odd particular person it’s not so. They exist in a positive potential state, the reason for future start.

When components or Kalas which might be the results of ignorance are dissolved by means of information it’s not doable {that a} the rest be left. The components, subsequently, get merged completely in Brahman. There is no such thing as a likelihood for them for cropping up once more.

TADOKO’DHIKARANAM: TOPIC 9

The soul of the knower of the Saguna Brahman involves the guts on the time of loss of life after which goes out by means of the Sushumna Nadi

Tadoko’grajvalanam tatprakasitadvaro

vidyasamarthyattaccheshagatyanusmritiyogaccha

hardanugrihitah satadhikaya IV.2.17 (513)

When the soul of a knower of the Saguna Brahman is about to depart from the physique, there takes place) a lighting up of the entrance of its (soul’s) abode (viz., the guts); the door (of its egress) being illumined thereby; owing to the facility of information and the applying of meditation to the way in which which is a part of that (information); the soul favoured by Him within the coronary heart (viz., Brahman) (passes upward) by the one which exceeds 100 (i.e., the hundred and first Nadi).

Tadoko agrajvalanam: the illumining of the highest of its (soul’s) abode (the guts); Tatprakasitadvarah: with the passage illumined by this mild; Vidyasamarthyat: by the facility of his information; Tat seshagatyanusmritiyogat: due to the applying of meditation to the way in which which is a part of that information; Cha: and; Hardanugrihitah: being favoured by Him who dwells within the coronary heart; Satadhikaya: by one which exceeds 100. (Tat: of that; Okah: abode, the guts; Agrajvalanam: the forepart or the tip of the guts being illumined; Tat: by the Lord dwelling within the coronary heart; Prakasita: illumined; Dvarah: door, the basis from which the hundred and first Nadi has its origin; Sesha: the rest; Gati: path, the way in which; Anusmritiyogat: due to the applying of the remembrance or fixed thought; Harda: the Lord who dwells within the coronary heart; Anugrihitah: being favoured by.)

The dialogue concerning the Para Vidya (Greater Data) is over. The Sutrakara now pursues the dialogue of the Apara Vidya, i.e., Upasana (decrease information).

It has been already said in Sutra 7 that as much as the start of the way in which the departure of a knower of the Saguna Brahman and an ignorant man is identical. The current Sutra now describes the soul’s getting into on the way in which. The Brihadaranyaka textual content describes the loss of life of an individual He taking with him these parts of sunshine descends into the guts (Bri. Up. IV.4.1). Then once more it says, The purpose of his coronary heart turns into lighted up, and by that mild the self departs, both by means of the attention or by means of the cranium or by means of different locations of the physique (Bri. Up. IV.4.2). The soul along with the organs involves the guts on the time of loss of life.

The query arises whether or not the departure is identical for a knower of Saguna Brahman and an odd man.

The exit of the odd man is completely different from that of the knower of Saguna Brahman. The previous goes out from any a part of the physique at loss of life (eye, ear, nostril, anus, and so on.). However the latter goes out solely by means of the Sushumna Nadi and out of the Brahmarandhra within the head. If he goes out by every other means he can not attain the Supreme Abode.

By advantage of information and owing to the applying of fixed considered Brahman the purpose of the guts which is the abode of the departing soul is illumined and thru the grace of the supreme soul resident therein, the door of egress, the mouth of the Nadi main from the guts to the pinnacle as said in Sutra 7 is thrown open. The soul passes into the Nadi numbered 100 and one. This Nadi is the gateway of the discharge. The opposite 100 Nadis result in bondage.

The scripture says in a chapter treating of the knower of Brahman dwelling within the coronary heart: There are 100 and one Nadis of the guts; considered one of them penetrates the crown of the pinnacle; going up alongside that one attains Immortality; the others serve for departure in numerous instructions) (Chh. Up. VIII.6.5).

Though equality for him who does know and him who doesn’t know, the purpose of the guts turns into shining and the door of egress thereby is lighted up, but he who is aware of departs by means of the cranium solely, whereas the others depart from different locations. Why so? On account of the facility of information. If additionally he who is aware of departs like all others, from anywhere of the physique, he could be unable to succeed in an exalted sphere after which all information could be meaningless.

And on account of the applying of meditation on the way in which forming part of that. In numerous Vidyas there may be enjoined meditation on the soul’s travelling on the way in which related with the Nadi that passes by means of the cranium, which means types a part of these Vidyas. Now it’s correct to conclude that he who meditates on that means ought to after loss of life proceed on it.

Subsequently, he who is aware of being favoured by Brahman dwelling within the coronary heart, on which he had meditated and thus changing into prefer it in nature departs by the Nadi which passes by means of the cranium which is the hundred and first. The souls of different males cross out by different Nadis.

RASMYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 10 (SUTRAS 18-19)

The soul of 1 who is aware of Saguna Brahman follows

the rays of the solar after loss of life and goes to Brahmaloka

Rasmyanusari IV.2.18 (514)

(The soul of a knower of the Saguna Brahman when he dies) follows the rays (of the solar).

Rasmi: the rays; Anusari: following.

The outline of the progress of the launched soul is sustained.

Chhandogya Upanishad declares When he thus departs from this physique, then he departs upwards by these very rays. By that shifting upwards he reaches immortality (Chh. Up. VIII.6.5).

From this we perceive that the soul passing out by the hundred and first Nadi (Sushumna) follows the rays of the solar.

A doubt right here arises as as to if the soul of 1 who dies by night time in addition to of him who dies by day follows the rays, or the soul of the latter solely.

As scripture mentions no distinction, the Sutra teaches that the souls comply with the rays in each instances.

Nisi neti chenna sambandhasya

yavaddehabhavitvaddarsayati cha IV.2.19 (515)

If or not it’s stated (that the soul does) not (comply with the rays) within the night time, we are saying (not so) as a result of the connection (of Nadis and rays) continues so long as the physique lasts; the Sruti additionally declares (this).

Nisi: at night time, within the night time; Na: not; Iti: so; Chet: if (if or not it’s objected); Na: not (the objection just isn’t legitimate); Sambandhasya: of the relation; Yavaddehabhavitvat: so long as the physique lasts; Darsayati: the Sruti exhibits or declares (this); Cha: and, additionally. (Yavad: so long as; Bhavitvat: due to the existence.)

An objection to Sutra 17 is raised and refuted.

This Sutra consists of two components, specifically an objection and its reply. The objection portion is ‘Nisi neti chet’ and the reply portion is ‘Na sambandhasya yavaddehabhavitvad darsayati cha’.

It’d maybe be stated that the Nadis and rays are related through the day, and so the soul of an individual who dies through the day could comply with these rays however not the soul of 1 who dies by night time, when the connection of the Nadis and the rays damaged.

However that is an misguided notion, for the connection of rays and Nadis lasts so long as the physique exists. Therefore it’s immaterial whether or not the soul passes out by day or by night time.

Additional we observe that the rays of the solar live on within the nights of the summer time season, as a result of we really feel their heat and different results. Through the nights of the opposite seasons they’re troublesome to understand, as a result of then few solely live on, simply as through the cloudy days of the chilly season. The Sruti additionally declares, Even by night time the solar sheds his rays.

We can not predetermine the motion of loss of life. If such departure to the supreme abode is denied to the particular person dying within the night time, nobody will take to Upasana. The results of information can’t be made to rely upon the accident of loss of life by day or night time.

If once more a person dying at night time ought to anticipate the daybreak to mount upwards, it’d occur that, owing to the motion of the funeral hearth and so on., his physique would on the time of day-break, not be able to getting into into reference to the rays. The scripture furthermore expressly declares that he doesn’t wait. As shortly as he sends off the thoughts he goes to the solar (Chh. Up. VIII.6.5).

For all these causes the soul follows the rays by night time in addition to by day.

DAKSHINAYANADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 11 (SUTRAS 20-21)

Even when the knower of the Saguna Brahman dies in Dakshinayana,

he nonetheless goes to Brahmaloka

Ataschayane’pi dakshine IV.2.20 (516)

And for a similar purpose (the departed soul follows the rays) additionally through the solar’s southern course.

Atah: for this very purpose, subsequently, for a similar purpose; Cha: and; Ayane: through the solar’s course; Api: additionally, even; Dakshine: within the southern.

This Sutra is a corollary drawn from the previous Sutra.

The Purvapakshin raises an objection and maintains that the soul of the knower of Brahman who passes away throughout Dakshinayana or the southern course of the solar doesn’t comply with the rays to Brahmaloka. The Sruti and the Smriti declare that just one who dies throughout Uttarayana or the northern course of the solar goes to Brahmaloka.

Additional it is usually written that Bhishma waited for the northern course of the solar to go away the physique.

This Sutra says that for a similar purpose as talked about within the earlier Sutra, i.e., the unreasonableness of creating the results of information rely upon the accident of loss of life occurring at a specific time, the knower of Saguna Brahman goes to Brahmaloka even when he dies through the southern course of the solar.

For a similar purpose, viz., as a result of ready is unattainable, and since the fruit of information just isn’t merely eventual one, and since the time of loss of life just isn’t mounted, additionally he who has true information, and who dies through the southern course of the solar obtains the fruit of his information.

Within the textual content Those that know thus go by mild, from mild to day, from day to the brilliant half of the month, and from that to the six months of the northern course of the solar (Chh. Up. V.10.1), the factors within the northern course of the solar don’t seek advice from any division of time however to deities as can be proven below IV.3.4.

The Devayana path may be trodden by those that die within the Dakshinayana.

Bhishma waited for the Uttarayana, as a result of he needed to uphold an accredited customized and to indicate that he might die at will owing to his father’s boon.

Yoginah prati cha smaryate smarte chaite IV.2.21 (517)

And (these occasions or particulars) are recorded by Smriti on the subject of the Yogins and these two (Yoga and Sankhya) and classed as Smritis (solely).

Yoginah prati: with respect to the Yogi; Cha: and; Smaryate: the Smriti declares; Smarte: belonging to the category of Smritis; Cha: and; Ete: these two.

The argument within the two previous Sutras is strengthened right here by additional exposition.

The Purvapakshin says: We’ve got the next Smriti textual content, That point whereby going Yogins return not, and likewise that whereby going forth they return, that point shall I declare to thee, O Prince of the Bharatas (Bhagavad Gita VIII. 23-24). This determines specifically that to die by day and so forth causes the soul to not return. How then can he who dies by night time or through the solar’s southern course depart to not return? The choice of the earlier Sutra can’t be appropriate.

This Sutra refutes the objection and says that these particulars as to time talked about within the Gita apply solely to Yogis who practise Sadhana based on Yoga and Sankhya techniques. These two are Smritis, not Srutis. Subsequently, the restrictions as to the time talked about in them don’t apply to those that meditate on the Saguna Brahman based on the Sruti texts.

Yoga and Sankhya are mere Smritis. They aren’t of religious character. Because it has a unique sphere of utility, and is predicated on a particular form of authority, the Smriti rule as to the time of dying has no affect on information primarily based on scripture.

However an objection is raised. We’ve got such passages as Hearth, mild, the day, the brilliant half of the month, the six months of the northern path, smoke, night time, the darkish half of the month, the six months of the southern path (Bhagavad Gita VIII. 24-25), wherein although belonging to Smriti we recognise the trail of the fathers as decided by scripture.

Our refutation, we reply, of the claims of Smriti applies solely to the contradiction which can come up from the instructing of Smriti relating to the professional time of dying, I’ll let you know the time, and so on. In as far as Smriti additionally mentions Agni and the opposite divinities which lead on the departed soul, there isn’t any contradiction by any means.

What seems to seek advice from time within the above passage refers solely to the deities presiding over the day-time and the brilliant half of the month and the Uttarayana and over the night time time, and the darkish half of the month and the Dakshinayana.

Thus ends the Second Pada (Part 2) of the Fourth Chapter (Adhyaya IV) of the Brahma Sutras or the Vedanta Philosophy.

INTRODUCTION

Within the earlier Part the departure of a knower of the Saguna Brahman by the trail of the gods (Devayana) has been described. Now the current Part treats of the trail itself. It describes the journey of the launched soul on the way in which to Brahman and takes up the thread of the story on the level the place it was left within the previous Part.

SYNOPSIS

Adhikarana I: (Sutra 1) The trail related with deities starting with that of sunshine is the one path to Brahmaloka.

Adhikarana II: (Sutra 2) The departing soul reaches the deity of the 12 months after which the deity of the air.

Adhikarana III: (Sutra 3) After reaching the deity recognized with lightning the soul reaches the world of Varuna.

Adhikaranas I, II, III (Sutras 1-3) reconcile the completely different accounts given within the Upanishads as to the stations on the way in which which leads the Upasaka to Saguna Brahman.

Adhikarana IV: (Sutras 4-6) Gentle, and so on., referred to within the textual content describing the trail of the gods imply deities recognized with the sunshine, and so on., which lead the soul stage after stage until Brahmaloka is reached.

Adhikarana V: (Sutras 7-14) The Brahman to which the departed souls go by the trail of the gods is the Saguna Brahman. That is the opinion propounded in Sutras 7-11 by Baadarayana. In Sutras 12-14 Jaimini defends the other view based on which the soul of the Upasaka goes to the Highest Brahman, to not the Karya Brahman (Saguna Brahman). Jaimini’s view is a mere Purvapaksha, whereas Baadari’s opinion represents the Siddhanta.

Adhikarana VI: (Sutras 15-16) Solely those that have worshipped the Saguna Brahman with no image attain Brahmaloka.

ARCHIRADYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 1

The trail related with the deities starting with that of sunshine

is the one path that results in Brahmaloka

Archiradina tatprathiteh IV.3.1 (518)

On the trail related with mild (the departed soul of the knower of Saguna Brahman travels to Brahmaloka after loss of life), that being well-known (from the Sruti).

Archiradina: by the trail of the rays, and so on., by the rays of sunshine and so forth, on the trail related with deities, starting with that of sunshine; Tatprathiteh: that being well-known (from the Sruti).

It has been defined that as much as the start of the way in which the departure is identical. Within the final part it was said that the knower of the Saguna Brahman travels to Devayana or the trail of the gods to Brahmaloka. However completely different texts make completely different declarations about the way in which itself.

One passage describes it as constituted by the junction of the Nadis and rays: Then he mounts upwards by simply these rays (Chh. Up. VIII.6.5). One other passage describes it as starting with mild. They go to the sunshine, from mild to day (Chh. Up. V.10.1). One other means is described in Kaushitaki Upanishad I.3: Having reached the trail of the gods, he involves the world of Agni. One other means is described in Bri. Up. V.10.1: When the particular person goes away from this world he involves the wind. One other means is described in Mun. Up. I.2.11: Free from ardour they depart by means of the gate of the solar.

A doubt right here arises whether or not these methods are completely different from one another or whether or not there is just one path, the trail of the gods of which the completely different texts point out completely different particulars, or give completely different descriptions.

The Purvapakshin maintains that these texts seek advice from completely different paths to Brahmaloka.

The current Sutra refutes this view and declares that every one the texts refer to at least one path solely and provides solely completely different particulars of the identical path, the trail related with deities starting with that recognized with mild. Why so? On account of its being broadly recognized, from the Sruti texts that that is the trail for all knowers of Brahman.

The textual content Those that know this (Panchagni Vidya) and those that within the forest meditate with religion and austerity attain the deity recognized with mild (Chh. Up. V.10.1), expressly states that the trail related with deities starting with that of the flame belongs to all knowers of Brahman no matter be the Vidya by which they’ve attained that information.

The aim, viz., Brahmaloka, is identical in all instances. Some a part of the trail is recognised in all texts. All the next passages declare one and the identical outcome, viz., the attainment of the world of Brahman. In these worlds of Brahman they dwell without end (Bri. Up. VI.2.15). There he dwells everlasting years (Bri. Up. V.10.1). No matter victory, no matter greatness belongs to Brahman, that victory he positive factors, that greatness he reaches (Kau. Up. I.2). There is no such thing as a justification to treat the trail as completely different on account of its being handled in numerous chapters.

Therefore we’ve to conclude that every one the texts seek advice from the identical path however give completely different particulars which have all to be mixed for a full description of the trail.

Although varied Srutis seek advice from the trail by such phrases as Archis (mild), Surya (solar), Vayu (wind), and so on., but all of them refer solely to completely different parts of 1 and the identical means, viz., Archiradi-marga or Devayana which ends up in Brahmaloka. Every Sruti provides us one thing indicatory of the trail and we’ve to mix the varied particulars.

VAYVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 2

The departing soul reaches the deity of the 12 months

after which the deity of the air

Vayumabdadaviseshaviseshabhyam IV.3.2 (519)

(The departed soul) (of a knower of the Saguna Brahman goes) from the deity of the 12 months to the deity of the air on account of the absence and presence of specification.

Vayum: the deity of the air; Abdat: from the deity of the 12 months; Aviseshaviseshabhyam: due to non-specification and specification, as a result of it’s said basically in a single Sruti and intimately in one other.

The outline of the trail of the gods is sustained.

The Sutra fixes the order of the phases. The Kaushitaki Upanishad describes the trail as follows: The Upasaka or the worshipper, having reached the trail of the gods involves the world of Agni (hearth), to the world of Vayu (air), to the world of Varuna, to the world of Indra, to the world of Prajapati, after which to the world of Brahma (Kau. Up. I.3).

Now the world of Agni means the identical as mild, as each phrases denote burning, and we, subsequently, needn’t with regard to them seek for the order wherein they’re to be mixed.

Once more the Chhandogya Upanishad (V.10.1) describes the trail as follows: They attain the deity recognized with the sunshine, from him to the deity of the day, from him to the deity of the brilliant half of the month, from him to the deities recognized with six months of the northern path of the solar, from them to the deity of the 12 months, from him to the deity of the solar, from him to the deity of the moon, from him to the deity of the lightning. Right here Vayu just isn’t talked about within the path starting with mild. There’s absence of specification.

Within the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Vayu is talked about earlier than Aditya. When the particular person goes away from this world he involves Vayu. Then Vayu makes room for him like the outlet of a wheel, and thru it he mounts increased, he involves Aditya. On account of this specification which exhibits Vayu to return earlier than Aditya, Vayu should be inserted between the 12 months and Aditya. We should always conclude that the soul goes to Vayuloka earlier than going to the solar.

The Brihadaranyaka textual content (V.10.1) fixes that air comes instantly earlier than the solar, as a result of there may be common order of succession. However as regards air coming after the deity of fireplace there isn’t any specification however merely an announcement Having reached the trail of the gods he involves the world of Agni, to the world of Vayu.

The Vajasaneyins of their textual content file From the deities recognized with the six months wherein the solar travels northwards he reaches the deity recognized with the world of the gods (Bri. Up. VI.2.15). Right here with a purpose to preserve the instant succession of the deity recognized with Vayu (air) and that recognized with the solar (Aditya) we should perceive that the soul passes from the deity of the world of the gods to the deity of air.

Once more within the texts of the Chhandogya and the Brihadaranyaka the deity of the world of the gods just isn’t talked about within the former and the deity of the 12 months within the latter. Each texts are authoritative. Each must be included within the full description of the trail. Because the 12 months is related with the months, the deity of the 12 months precedes the deity of the world of the gods.

Therefore the sequence is Archis (rays), Ahas (day), Suklapaksha (brilliant half of the month), six months when the solar travels to the north, 12 months, the world of the gods, the world of Vayu, the solar, the moon, the lightning, the world of Varuna, the world of Indra, the world of Prajapati and the world of Brahma.

TADIDADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 3

After reaching the deity recognized with lightning,

the soul reaches the world of Varuna

Tadito’dhi varunah sambandhat IV.3.3 (520)

After (reaching) the deity of lightning (the soul reaches) Varuna, on account of the connection (between the 2).

Taditah adhi: after the deity of lightning; Varunah: (comes) Varuna (rain god); Sambandhat: on account of connection.

The enumeration of the stations of the journey is sustained.

Within the Chhandogya textual content we discover, From the solar to the moon, from moon to lightning. Within the Kaushitaki Upanishad we discover, From Vayu (wind) to Varuna. Combining the 2 texts we’ve to put Varuna after lightning, on account of the connection between the 2 (lightning and Varuna). The broad lightnings dance forth from the womb of the clouds with the sound of deep thunder after which water falls down. It lightens, it thunders, it’ll rain (Chh. Up. VII.11.1). Varuna is the god of rain and lightning precedes rain. So after lightning comes Varuna.

After Varuna come Indra and Prajapati for there isn’t any different place for them. The Kaushitaki textual content additionally places them there.

The whole enumeration of the phases of the trail of the gods is as follows: first the deity of fireplace, then the deity of the day, the deity of the brilliant half of the month, the deities of the six months when the solar travels to the north, the deity of the 12 months, the deity of the world of gods, the deity of the air, the solar, the moon, the deity of lightning, the world of Varuna, the world of Indra, the world of Prajapati, and eventually Brahmaloka.

Ativahikadhikaranam: Subject 4 (Sutras 4-6)

Gentle, and so on., referred to within the textual content describing the trail of the gods imply deities recognized with mild, and so on., who conduct the soul

stage after stage until Brahmaloka is reached

Ativahikastallingat IV.3.4 (521)

(These are) deities conducting the soul (on the trail of the gods), on account of indicatory marks to that impact.

Ativahikah: conductors, deities conducting the departed soul; Tad-lingat: on account of indicatory marks to that impact.

The outline of the trail of the gods is sustained.

With regard to these starting with mild a doubt arises whether or not they’re marks of the street, or locations of enjoyment, or conductors of the travelling souls.

The Purvapakshin says: Gentle and so forth are marks of the street, as a result of the instruction has that character. In odd life a person who needs to go to a village or a city is advised Go from right here to that hill, from there to a banyan tree, from that tree to a river, from that to a village, after that you’ll attain the city. So right here additionally the textual content says, From mild to day, from day to the waxing half of the month, and so on.

Or else mild and so forth could also be seen as locations of enjoyment. As a result of the textual content connects Agni and so forth with the world He involves the world of Agni. Now the time period world denotes locations of enjoyment of residing beings, as once we say the world of males, the world of fathers, the world of gods.

Subsequently, mild and the remainder usually are not conductors. Additional they can’t be conductors as they’re with out intelligence. In odd life, clever males solely are appointed by the king to conduct travellers over troublesome roads.

The current Sutra refutes this. They should be the conductors. They obtain the departed souls and conduct them on their technique to Brahmaloka. That conductors are meant right here and never marks or locations of enjoyment is indicated by the textual content of the Chhandogya which ends thus, From the moon to the lightning. Then a being who just isn’t a person leads them to Brahman (Chh. Up. IV.15.5; V.10.1). This textual content exhibits that in contrast to the earlier guides or conductors who have been kind of human, this specific information or conductor just isn’t a human in natureAmanava.

Ubhayavyamohat tatsiddheh IV.3.5 (522)

(That deities or divine guides are meant in these texts, they’re private conductors) is established, as a result of each (i.e., the trail and the traveller) turn into unconscious.

Ubhaya: each (the trail and the traveller); Vyamohat: due to unconsciousness; Tat-siddheh: that’s established.

This Sutra is an argument in help of Sutra 4.

The departed souls usually are not able to guiding themselves as their organs are withdrawn within the thoughts. The sunshine, and so on., are with out intelligence. Therefore they’re equally incapable and can’t information the souls. Therefore it follows that the actual clever deities recognized with the sunshine, and so on., information the souls to Brahmaloka. In odd life additionally drunken or mindless folks comply with a street as commanded by others.

Once more mild and the remainder can’t be taken for marks of the trail or street, as a result of they don’t seem to be all the time current.

Additional the departed souls can not get pleasure from as their organs are withdrawn into the thoughts. Therefore mild and the remainder can’t be worlds the place they get pleasure from.

Though the wanderers or the departed souls don’t get pleasure from something, the phrase world could also be defined on the bottom that these worlds are locations of enjoyment for different beings dwelling there.

The conclusion, subsequently, is that he who has reached the world of Agni is led on by Agni and he who has reached the world dominated by Vayu is led by Vayu.

Vaidyutenaiva tatastacchruteh IV.3.6 (523)

From thence (the souls are led or guided) by the exact same (superhuman) one that involves lightning, that being recognized from the Sruti.

Vaidyutena: by the (superhuman) information related with lightning, by the superhuman being who takes his cost from the god of lightning; Eva: alone, solely, certainly; Tatah: from thence; Tat sruteh: that being recognized from the Sruti, as Sruti states so, due to the Vedic textual content.

The dialogue on the journey is sustained.

From thence, i.e., after they’ve come to the lightning they go to the world of Brahman, being led by means of the worlds of Varuna and the remainder by the particular person, not a person (Amanava-purusha) who follows instantly after the lightning. Once they have reached the place of lightning, an individual, not a person, leads them to the world of Brahman (Bri. Up. VI.2.15).

Varuna and the remainder solely favour the souls both by not obstructing or serving to them indirectly.

Subsequently, it’s properly established that mild and so forth are the gods who act as conductors or guards.

KARYADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 5 (SUTRAS 7-14)

The departed souls go by the trail of gods to Saguna Brahman

Karyam baadarirasya gatyupapatteh IV.3.7 (524)

To the Karya Brahman or Hiranyagarbha or Saguna Brahman (the departed souls are led); (thus opines) the sage Baadari on account of the potential for its being the aim (of their journey).

Karyam: the relative Brahman or Hiranyagarbha; Baadarih: the sage Baadari (holds); Asya: his; Gati-upapatteh: on account of the potential for being the aim.

A dialogue is now taken up whether or not the soul is performed to the Nirguna Brahman or the Saguna Brahman.

Within the earlier Sutra the way in which was mentioned.

Now from this Sutra onwards the dialogue is concerning the aim reached.

The Chhandogya textual content declares, Then a being who just isn’t a person (Amanava Purusha) leads them to Brahman (Chh. Up. V.10.1).

A doubt arises whether or not the Brahman is the Saguna Brahman or the Supreme Nirguna Brahman. The opinion of the instructor Baadari is that the particular person, who just isn’t a person, leads them to the decrease certified, effected Brahman (Saguna or Karya Brahman); as a result of it’s doable to go to that. As a result of Saguna Brahman which occupies a particular place, which has a particular abode and which is finite may be the aim of a journey. However it’s not doable with respect to the Nirguna Brahman which is Infinite and all-pervading. With the Highest Nirguna Brahman then again, we can not join the concepts of 1 who goes, or object of going or act of going; as a result of that Brahman is current in all places and is the interior Self of all.

Viseshitatvaccha IV.3.8 (525)

And on account of the qualification (with respect to this Brahman in one other textual content).

Viseshitatvat: due to being laid out in Sruti, on account of the qualification; Cha: and.

An argument in help of Sutra 7 is adduced.

As a result of the phrase Brahman is certified by the phrase ‘lokam’.

He leads them to the worlds of Brahman; in these worlds of Brahman they dwell without end (Bri. Up. VI.2.15). The plural quantity just isn’t doable with respect to the Supreme Infinite Brahman which can abide in numerous situations.

Samipyattu tadvyapadesah IV.3.9 (526)

However on account of the nearness (of the Saguna Brahman to the Supreme Brahman it’s) designated as that (Supreme Brahman).

Samipyat: due to the nearness or proximity; Tu: however; Tad: that; Vyapadesah: designation.

The argument in help of Sutra 7 is sustained.

The phrase ‘tu’ (however) units apart any doubt that will come up on account of the phrase ‘Brahma’ getting used for the Saguna Brahman within the Chhandogya textual content.

This Sutra says that this designation is on account of the proximity of the Saguna Brahman to the supreme Brahman or the Absolute.

The manifested Brahman additionally may be referred to as Brahman as it’s within the closest proximity to the Unmanifested Para Brahman. The Para Brahman assumes completely pure limiting adjuncts equivalent to thoughts, and so on., to turn into an object of devotion and meditation, i.e., the decrease Brahman or Karya Brahman or Saguna Brahman.

Karyatyaye tadadhyakshena sahatah

paramabhidhanat IV.3.10 (527)

On the dissolution of the Brahmaloka (the souls attain) together with the ruler of that world what’s increased than that (i.e., the Supreme Brahman) on account of the declaration of the Sruti.

Karyatyaye: on the dissolution of the Brahmaloka (Karya: of the impact, i.e., the universe, the relative Saguna Brahman); Tad: of that; Adhyakshena: with the ruler-president, i.e., Hiranyagarbha or the four-faced Brahma; Saha: with; Atahparam: increased than that, i.e., the Supreme Brahman; Abhidhanat: on account of the declaration of the Sruti.

The person soul’s ultimate absorption within the Para Brahman or the Absolute is now said.

The Purvapakshin says: If the souls who go by the trail of the gods attain the Saguna Brahman, then how can statements like, They who proceed on that path don’t return to the lifetime of man (Chh. Up. IV.15.6); For them there isn’t any return right here (Bri. Up. VI.2.15); Shifting upwards by {that a} man reaches immortality (Chh. Up. VIII.6.5), be made with respect to them, as there isn’t any permanency wherever aside from the Highest Brahman?

The Sutra declares that on the dissolution of Brahmaloka the souls, which by that point have attained information, together with the Saguna Brahman attain what’s increased than the Saguna Brahman, i.e., Para Brahman or the pure highest place of Vishnu. That is referred to as Kramamukti or successive (progressive) liberation or launch by successive steps. So the Sruti texts declare.

Smritescha IV.3.11 (528)

And on account of the Smriti (texts supporting this view).

Smriteh: on account of the assertion of the Smriti, as Smriti agrees with the view, based on the Smriti; Cha: and.

An argument in help of Sutra 10 is adduced.

The view expressed within the previous Sutra is corroborated by Smriti additionally, When the Pralaya has come and when the primary particular person (Hiranyagarbha) involves His finish, then all of them, along with Brahman, with purified minds enter the best place.

The above are the Siddhanta Sutras. The ultimate conclusion (Siddhanta), subsequently is that the going of the souls of which scripture speaks, has for its aim the Karya Brahman or Saguna Brahman.

The Purvapaksha is said in Sutras 12-14.

Param jaiminirmukhyatvat IV.3.12 (529)

To the best (Brahman) (the souls are led); Jaimini opines, on account of that being the first that means (of the phrase `Brahman’).

Param: the Supreme (Brahman); Jaiminih: the sage Jaimini (opines or holds); Mukhyatvat: on account of that being the first that means (of the phrase `Brahman’).

Sutras 12-14 give a prima facie view of the matter. An objection to Sutra 7 is adduced by presenting an reverse view.

Jaimini is of opinion that the phrase ‘Brahman’ within the Chhandogya textual content He leads them to Brahman refers back to the Highest Brahman, as that’s the main that means of the phrase.

Darsanaccha IV.3.13 (530)

And since the Sruti declares that.

Darsanat: on account of the Sruti texts; Cha: and, additionally.

An argument in help of Jaimini is adduced.

The textual content Going upwards by that he reaches immortality (Chh. Up. VIII.6.6) (Katha Up. II.6.16) declares that immortality is attained by going. However immortality is feasible solely within the Supreme Brahman, not within the Saguna Brahman, as a result of the latter is transitory. So scripture says, The place one sees one thing else, that’s little, that’s mortal (Chh. Up. VIII.24.1).

In keeping with the textual content of the Kathopanishad additionally the going of the soul is in the direction of the supreme Brahman. The soul which passes out of the physique by the Sushumna Nadi reaches immortality. This may be attained solely within the Supreme Brahman.

Na cha karye pratipattyabhisandhih IV.3.14 (531)

And the will to achieve Brahman can’t be with respect to the Saguna Brahman.

Na: not; Cha: and; Karye: within the Saguna Brahman; Pratipatti: realisation of Brahman; Abhisandhih: need. (Pratipatti- abhisandhih: the will to achieve or realise Brahman.)

The argument in help of Sutra 12 is sustained.

I enter the corridor of Prajapati, the home (Chh. Up. VIII.14.1), can not have the decrease or Saguna Brahman for its object. This need to enter the ‘corridor’ or the ‘home’ can’t be with respect to the Saguna Brahman. It’s applicable with regard to the Highest Brahman (Para Brahman). As a result of the instantly previous passage intimates And that inside which these (names and types) are contained is Brahman. The passage I’m the glory of the Brahmanas represents the soul because the self of all. ‘Glory’ is the identify of the supreme Brahman. There is no such thing as a likeness of him whose identify is nice glory (Vajasaneya Samhita: XXXII.3). Right here the Supreme Brahman is referred to.

Sutras 12-14 give the view of the Purvapakshin towards what has been stated in Sutras 7-11. The arguments of Sutras 12-14 are refuted thus:

The Brahman attained by those that go by the trail of the gods (Devayana) can’t be the Supreme Brahman (Nirguna Brahman). They attain solely the Saguna Brahman. Para Brahman is all-pervading. He’s the Interior Self of all. He can’t be attained as He’s the Innermost Self of everybody.

We don’t go to what’s already reached. Abnormal expertise somewhat tells us that an individual goes to one thing completely different from him. Journey or attainment is feasible solely the place there may be distinction, the place the attainer is completely different from the attained.

The Supreme Brahman can’t be assumed to own any variations relying on time, or house or anything and can’t, subsequently, turn into the thing of going.

Within the realisation of the Supreme Brahman the veil of ignorance is eliminated and the seeker is aware of his important divine nature. He realises his identification with the Supreme Brahman. When the ignorance is eliminated Brahman manifests itself. That’s all. There is no such thing as a going or attaining in such a realisation.

However the attainment of Brahman spoken of within the texts related with the trail of the gods just isn’t merely the removing of ignorance however precise.

The passage I enter the corridor of Prajapati, the home, may be separated from what precedes and be related with the Saguna Brahman.

The truth that Chh. Up. VIII.14.1 says I’m the glory of the Brahmanas, of the kings can not make it seek advice from the Nirguna Brahman, as a result of the Saguna Brahman can be stated to be the self of all, as we discover in texts like He, to whom all works, all needs belong (Chh. Up. III.14.2).

The reference to the journey to Brahman which belongs to the realm of relative or certified information in a chapter which offers with the Highest Data is barely by the use of glorification of the latter.

For all these causes the view of Baadari as set forth in Sutras 7-11 is the right one.

APRATIKALAMBANADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 6 (SUTRAS 15-16)

Solely those that have taken recourse to the worship of Brahman

with no image attain Brahmaloka

Apratikalambanannayatiti baadarayana

ubhayathadoshattatkratuscha IV.3.15 (532)

Baadarayana holds that (the superhuman being) leads (to Brahmaloka solely) those that don’t take recourse to a logo of Brahman of their meditation; there being no fault within the twofold relation (ensuing from this opinion) and (it being construed on the doctrine) as is the meditation on that (i.e., Brahman) so does one turn into.

Apratikalambanat: those that wouldn’t have recourse to the symbols for the meditation of Brahman; Nayati: (the superhuman being) leads or takes; Iti Baadarayanah: so says Baadarayana; Ubhayatha: each methods; Adoshat: there being no defects; Tat-kratuh: as is the meditation on that, (so does one turn into); Cha: and.

The dialogue commenced is Sutra 6, whether or not the soul is taken to the Supreme Brahman or the Saguna Brahman is concluded on this and the next Sutra.

A doubt right here arises whether or not all worshippers of the Saguna Brahman go to Brahmaloka being led by the superhuman being talked about in Chh. Up. IV.15.5 or solely a few of them?

The Purvapakshin maintains that every one go to Brahmaloka no matter could also be their Upasana.

This Sutra declares that solely these worshippers of the Saguna Brahman who don’t take recourse to any image of their meditation on Brahman go there. That is the opinion of the instructor Baadarayana. This, nonetheless, doesn’t contradict what is alleged in III.3.31 if we perceive that by ‘all’ is supposed all these worshippers who don’t take recourse to any image of their meditation on Brahman.

Solely Brahma Upasakas are taken by the Amanava Purusha to the Brahmaloka. The type of meditation governs the outcome. Within the case of symbols just like the Salagrama stone, there isn’t any feeling that it itself is Brahman. Little doubt within the case of Panchagni-Vidya, the Sruti says that the worshipper is led to Brahmaloka. However we can not prolong the outcome to the worshippers of exterior symbols the place there isn’t any direct scriptural assertion, we’ve to know that solely those that meditate on Brahman go to Brahmaloka, not others.

He whose meditation is mounted on Brahman reaches Brahmaloka. This view is supported by Sruti and Smriti. In no matter kind they meditate on Him, that they turn into themselves. Within the case of symbols then again, the meditation just isn’t mounted on Brahman, the image being the chief aspect within the meditation. Therefore the worshipper doesn’t attain Brahmaloka.

Visesham cha darsayati IV.3.16 (533)

And the scripture declares a distinction (within the case of meditation on symbols).

Visesham: distinction; Cha: and; Darsayati: the scripture declares.

An argument in help of the conclusion arrived at by Baadarayana, is adduced right here.

Close to meditations on symbols equivalent to identify and so forth, that happen in Chhandogya Upanishadic texts, the Sruti speaks of various outcomes based on distinction within the symbols. One who meditates upon identify as Brahman turns into unbiased as far as identify reaches (Chh. Up. VII.1.5). One who meditates upon speech as Brahman turns into unbiased as far as speech reaches (Chh. Up. VII.2.2).

Now the excellence of rewards is feasible as a result of the meditations rely upon symbols, whereas there might be no such distinction in outcomes, in the event that they rely upon the one non-different Brahman.

Therefore it’s fairly clear that those that use symbols for his or her meditation can not have the identical reward as others. They can not go to Brahmaloka like those that meditate on the Saguna Brahman.

Thus ends the Third Pada (Part 3) of the Fourth Chapter (Adhyaya IV) of the Brahma Sutras or the Vedanta Philosophy.

INTRODUCTION

The attainment of Brahmaloka by the worshippers of the Saguna Brahman has been handled within the final Part. This Part offers with the realisation of the Highest Brahman by its worshippers.

SYNOPSIS

Adhikarana I: (Sutras 1-3) the launched soul doesn’t purchase something new however merely manifests itself in its true nature.

Adhikarana II: (Sutra 4) determines that relation wherein the launched soul stands to Brahman is that of Avibhaga, non-separation.

Adhikarana III: (Sutras 5-7) talk about the traits of the soul that has attained the Nirguna Brahman. In keeping with Jaimini the launched soul, when manifesting itself in its true nature, possesses the attributes which in Chh. Up. VIII.7.1 and different locations are ascribed to Brahman, equivalent to Apahatapapmatva (freedom from sin), Satyasankalpatva (true volition) and Aisvarya (Omniscience) and so on.

In keeping with Audulomi the one traits of the launched soul is Chaitanya or pure intelligence.

In keeping with Baadarayana the 2 views may be mixed. The 2 views describe the launched soul from two completely different standpoints, viz., relative and transcendental and so there isn’t any contradiction between the 2.

Adhikarana IV: (Sutras 8-9) The soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman results its needs be mere will.

Adhikarana V: (Sutras 10-14) A launched soul which has attained Brahmaloka can exist with or with no physique based on its liking.

Adhikarana VI: (Sutras 15-16) The launched soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman can animate a number of our bodies on the identical time.

Adhikarana VII: (Sutras 17-22) The launched soul which has attained Brahmaloka has all of the lordly powers besides the facility of creation, and so on. There is no such thing as a return to this world for these launched souls.

SAMPADYAVIRBHAVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 1 (SUTRAS 1-3)

The liberated soul doesn’t purchase something new

however solely manifests its important or true nature

Sampadyavirbhavah svena sabdat IV.4.1 (534)

(When the Jiva or the person soul) has attained (the best mild) there may be manifestation (of its personal actual nature) as we infer from the phrase ‘personal’.

Sampadya: having attained; Avirbhavah: there may be manifestation; Svena sabdat: from the phrase ‘personal’. (Svena: by one’s personal; Sabdat: inferred from the phrase.)

The Chhandogya textual content says Now this serene and comfortable being, after having risen out of this physique and having attained the best mild, manifests itself by its personal nature (Chh. Up. VII.12.3).

The Purvapakshin holds that the Jiva or the person soul which has freed itself from identification with the three our bodies attains emancipation after realising Brahman. Launch is also a fruit like different fruits, e.g., Svarga or heaven. Manifestation means as a lot as origination. Liberation was not a pre-existent factor. It’s one thing that’s newly acquired like heaven, because the phrase ‘reaches’ within the textual content clearly signifies. Subsequently emancipation is one thing new that’s acquired by the person soul. If the manifestation befell solely by means of the self’s personal nature, it might already seem within the self’s former states, as a result of a factor’s personal nature isn’t absent in it.

The current Sutra refutes this view and says that the phrase ‘personal’ signifies that emancipation was a pre-existent factor. The person soul manifests its personal, important divine nature which was so lengthy lined by ignorance (Avidya). That is his attainment of the ultimate beatitude or launch. It’s definitely nothing that’s newly acquired.

Muktah pratijnanat IV.4.2 (535)

(The self whose true nature has manifested itself is) launched; based on the promise (made by scripture).

Muktah: the liberated one, launched, freed; Pratijnanat: based on the promise.

The earlier Sutra is additional elucidated.

Emancipation is a cessation of all bondage and never the accession of one thing new, simply as well being is merely the removing of sickness and never a brand new acquisition.

If launch is nothing new that’s acquired by the person soul, then what’s its distinction from bondage? The Jiva was stained within the state of bondage by the three states, i.e., the state of waking, dreaming and dreamless sleep. In keeping with Chhandogya Upanishad VIII. 11th of September, It’s blind It weeps because it have been It goes to utter annihilation. It imagines itself to be finite. It identifies itself with the illusory automobiles or Upadhis and experiences pleasure, ache, pleasure and sorrow. After Self-realisation it realises its true nature which is absolute bliss. It’s free of all misguided notions and misconceptions. It’s free of Avidya or ignorance and its results. It’s excellent, free, unbiased. That is the distinction.

Annihilation of ignorance is salvation. Eradication of all misguided notions or misconceptions is liberation. Destruction of the veil of ignorance, that separates the person soul from the Supreme Soul is emancipation or the ultimate beatitude.

However how is it recognized that in its current situation the soul is launched? On account of the promise made within the scriptures, says the Sutra.

The Chhandogya Upanishad says, I’ll clarify It to you additional (Chh. Up. VIII.9.3; VIII.10.4; VIII.11.3). Right here the Sruti proposes to expound that Self which is free from all imperfections. It begins thus, The Self which is free from sin (Chh. Up. VIII.7.1). It being with out the physique, just isn’t touched by pleasure and ache (Chh. Up. VIII.12.1), and concludes By his personal nature he manifests himself. That’s the highest particular person. The serene being rises above its physique, reaches the best mild and seems in its personal true nature (Chh. Up. VIII.12.3).

Atma prakaranat IV.4.3 (536)

(The sunshine into which the person soul enters is) the Supreme Self; owing to the subject material of the chapter.

Atma: the Supreme Self; Prakaranat: on account of the subject material of the discourse or context.

This Sutra says that the person soul recovers his personal Self (the Supreme Self) as said in Sutra 1.

The Purvapakshin holds: How can the soul be referred to as liberated contemplating that the clause (having entered into) the best mild speaks of it as throughout the sphere of what’s a mere impact? As a result of the phrase ‘mild’ in frequent parlance denotes bodily mild. Nobody who has not transcended past the sphere of results may be liberated, as no matter is an impact is tainted with evil.

We reply: this objection is with out pressure. It can not stand; for within the passage referred to within the Chh. Up. VIII.3.4 the phrase ‘mild’ denotes the Self Supreme, in accordance with the subject material of the Chapter and never any bodily mild.

The phrase ‘Jyotih’ (mild) within the passage refers back to the Atma which is described as sinless, undecaying and deathless (Ya Atma apahatapapma vijaro vimrityuhChh. Up. VIII.7.1).

We, subsequently, could not abruptly cross over to bodily mild incurring thereby the fault of abandoning the subject below dialogue and introducing a brand new one.

The phrase ‘mild’ can also be used to indicate the Self within the texts like The gods meditate on the immortal Gentle of all lights as longevity (Bri. Up. IV.4.16). We’ve got mentioned this intimately below I.3.40.

AVIBHAGENA DRISHTATVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 2

The launched soul stays inseparable from the Supreme Soul

Avibhagena drishtatvat IV.4.4 (537)

(The Jiva within the state of launch exists) as inseparable (from Brahman), as a result of it’s so seen from the scriptures.

Avibhagena: as inseparable; Drishtatvat: for it’s so seen from the scriptures.

A doubt arises whether or not the person soul within the state of emancipation exists as completely different from Brahman or as one with and inseparable from It.

The current Sutra declares that it exists as inseparable from Brahman, as a result of the Sruti texts declare so. Thou artwork That, Tat Tvam Asi (Chh. Up. VI.8.7). Aham Brahma Asmi, I’m Brahman (Bri. Up. I.4.10). The place he sees nothing else (Chh. Up. VII.24.1). Being however Brahman, he’s merged in Brahman (Bri. Up. IV.4.6). All these Sruti passages declare that the emancipated soul is similar with Brahman.

Such passages as Simply as pure water poured into pure water stays the identical, thus O Gautama, is the self of a thinker who is aware of (Katha Up. II.4.15), whose object is to explain the character of the launched soul, declare that there’s non-separation solely. The identical follows from the comparability of the soul getting into Brahman to rivers falling into the ocean.

Passages which communicate of distinction must be defined in a secondary sense, expressing non-separation or unity.

Brahmadhikaranam: Subject 3 (Sutras 5-7)

Traits of the soul that has attained the Nirguna Brahman

Brahmena jaiminirupanyasadibhyah IV.4.5 (538)

(The launched soul exists) as possessed of (the attributes of) Brahman; (thus) Jaimini (opines) on account of the reference and so on.

Brahmena: as possessed of the attributes of Brahman; Jaiminih: Jaimini (holds); Upanyasadibhyah: on account of the reference and so on.

The view of the sage Jaimini is said on this connection.

It has been said that the launched soul attains Brahman. Brahman has two points, viz., one the unconditioned side as pure consciousness and the opposite as described within the Chhandogya Upanishad VIII.7.1: The Atman which is free from evil, undecaying, timeless, free from sorrow, starvation and thirst, with true needs (Satyakama) and true volitions (Satyasankalpa).

A doubt arises now, which side does the launched soul attain? Jaimini maintains that the liberated soul attains the conditioned side. Why? As a result of that is recognized from reference to the character of the self as being such within the textual content cited. The qualities of Omniscience and Omnipotence are talked about. Therefore Jaimini opines that the launched soul attains the conditioned side of Brahman.

Chititanmatrena tadatmakatvadityaudulomih IV.4.6 (539)

(The launched soul exists) solely as pure consciousness or Intelligence, that being its true nature or essence; thus Audulomi (thinks).

Chititanmatrena: solely as pure consciousness (Tanmatrena: solely); Tadatmakatvat: that being its true nature or essence; Iti: thus, so; Audulomih: Audulomi (thinks).

The view of sage Audulomi is said on this connection.

This Sutra provides one other view concerning the state of emancipation. That is the view of the sage Audulomi. Audulomi says that it’s the realisation of the soul’s important nature as pure Chaitanya (information, consciousness or intelligence). The soul is solely of the character of Pure Consciousness. It exists as such within the state of launch.

This conclusion may even agree with different scriptural texts equivalent to Bri. Up. IV.5.13: Thus this Self has neither inside nor exterior, however is altogether a mass of information.

Though the textual content enumerates completely different qualities equivalent to freedom from sin, and so on., these qualities relaxation solely on fanciful conceptions because of distinction of phrases; as a result of what the textual content intimates is barely absence basically of all qualities equivalent to sin and the remainder.

Evamapyupanyasat purvabhavadavirodham

baadarayanah IV.4.7 (540)

Thus additionally, on account of the existence of the previous qualities admitted owing to reference and so forth, there isn’t any contradiction (between the 2); (so thinks) Baadarayana.

Evam: thus; Api: even; Upanyasat: on account of reference; Purvabhavat: owing to attribution of properties talked about earlier than; Avirodham: there isn’t any contradiction; Baadarayanah: Baadarayana (thinks).

The writer’s personal view is now said.

Baadarayana reconciles each and says that the affirmation of the divine attributes of Omniscience and Omnipotence is from the viewpoint of God’s nature when the soul is certain, whereas the affirmation of the soul’s nature as pure information is from the viewpoint of its launched state.

Though it’s admitted that intelligence constitutes the true nature of the Self, additionally the previous nature, i.e., lordly energy like that of Brahman, which is intimated by reference and the remainder is with a view to the world of appearances not rejected. Therefore there isn’t any contradiction. That is the opinion of the instructor Baadarayana.

SANKALPADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 4 (SUTRAS 8-9)

The soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman

results its need by mere will

Sankalpadeva tu tacchruteh IV.4.8 (541)

However by mere will (the liberated souls attain their objective), as a result of scriptures say so.

Sankalpat: by the train of will; Eva: solely; Tu: however; Tat-sruteh: as a result of Sruti says so.

The powers and privileges which a liberated soul acquires are said right here.

Within the meditation on Brahman throughout the coronary heart we learn as follows: If he needs the world of the fathers (Pitriloka) by his mere will they arrive to him (Chh. Up. VIII.2.1).

A doubt right here arises whether or not the need alone is the trigger to get the outcome, or the need mixed with another operative trigger.

The Purvapakshin holds that though scripture says by his mere will another trigger should be presupposed to cooperate as in odd life. As a result of, as in odd expertise the assembly with one’s father is attributable to one’s will, and as well as by the act of going and so forth, so it will likely be with the case of the liberated soul additionally.

This Sutra says that by mere will the outcome comes, as a result of the Sruti so declares. If every other trigger have been required, the direct scriptural statements by his will solely would thereby be contradicted.

The desire of the liberated soul is completely different from the need of odd males. It has the facility of manufacturing outcomes with none operative trigger.

Ata eva chananyadhipatih IV.4.9 (542)

And for this exact same purpose (the launched soul is) with out one other Lord.

Ata eva: for the very purpose, subsequently, so; Cha: and; Ananyadhipatih: with out every other Lord.

The earlier matter is sustained.

For the exact same purpose, i.e., owing to the actual fact of the need of the launched particular person being omnipotent, he who is aware of has no different Lord over himself. As a result of not even an odd particular person when forming needs, will, if he may also help it, want himself to be topic to a different grasp. Even on this world nobody might willingly have grasp to lord over him. Scripture additionally declares {that a} launched soul is grasp of himself. For them there may be freedom from all worlds (Chh. Up. VIII.1.6).

ABHAVADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 5 (SUTRAS 10-14)

A liberated soul who has attained Brahmaloka can exist

with or with no physique based on his liking

Abhavam baadariraha hyevam IV.4.10 (543)

There’s absence (of physique and organs, within the case of the liberated souls) (asserts) Baadari, for thus scripture says.

Abhavam: absence (of physique and organs); Baadarih: the sage Baadari (asserts); Aha: (the Sruti) says; Hello: as a result of; Evam: thus.

There follows a dialogue whether or not the liberated soul possesses a physique or not.

The passage By his mere will the fathers rise exhibits that the liberated soul possesses a thoughts, whereby he wills. A doubt arises whether or not he possesses a physique and the organs.

The instructor Baadari says that he doesn’t, as a result of the scripture declares so, And it’s via the thoughts that he sees the needs and rejoices (Chh. Up. VIII.12.5). This clearly signifies that he possesses solely the thoughts and never the organs, and so on. There are neither physique nor sense-organs within the state of emancipation.

Bhavam jaiminirvikalpamananat IV.4.11 (544)

Jaimini (asserts that the liberated soul) possesses (a physique and the organs) as a result of the scriptures declare (the capability on the a part of such a soul to imagine) varied types.

Bhavam: existence; Jaiminih: Jaimini (holds); Vikalpa- mananat: as a result of the scripture declares (the capability to imagine) divine types. (Vikalpa: choice, variety in manifestation; Amananat: from assertion in Sruti.)

A opposite view to Sutra 10 is adduced.

The instructor Jaimini is of the opinion that the liberated soul possesses a physique and organs in addition to a thoughts. the Chhandogya Upanishad declares He being one turns into three, 5, seven, 9 (Chh. Up. VII.26.2). This textual content says {that a} liberated soul can assume a couple of kind. This means that the launched soul possesses moreover the thoughts, a physique and the organs.

Dvadasahavadubhayavidham baadarayano’tah IV.4.12 (545)

For that reason Baadarayana opines that the launched particular person is of each sorts as within the case of the twelve days’ sacrifice.

Dvadasahavat: just like the twelve days’ sacrifice; Ubhayavidham: (is) of each sorts; Baadarayanah: Baadarayana (thinks); Atah: so, subsequently, from this, from this very purpose.

A call is given on the conflicting views famous above.

Baadarayana affirms from the twofold declarations of the 2 scriptures {that a} liberated soul who has attained Brahmaloka can exist each methods, with or with no physique, based on his liking. It’s just like the twelve days’ sacrifice, which is named a Satra in addition to an Ahina sacrifice.

Tanvabhave sandhyavadupapatteh IV.4.13 (546)

Within the absence of a physique (the fulfilment of needs is feasible) as in goals, as that is affordable.

Tanvabhave: within the absence of a physique; Sandhyavad: simply as in goals (which stand halfway between waking and deep sleep); Upapatteh: this being affordable.

An inference is drawn from the conclusion arrived at in Sutra 12.

When there isn’t any physique or sense-organs, the wished for objects are skilled by the liberated souls simply as embodied individuals expertise pleasure in goals.

Bhave jagradvat IV.4.14 (547)

When the physique exists (the fulfilment of needs is) as within the waking state.

Bhave: when the physique exists; Jagradvat: simply as within the waking state.

When there are the physique and sense-organs, the wished for objects are skilled by the liberated souls, simply as embodied individuals expertise joys within the waking state.

PRADIPADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 6 (SUTRAS 15-16)

The liberated soul which has attained the Saguna Brahman

can animate a number of our bodies on the identical time

Pradipavadavesastatha hello darsayati IV.4.15 (548)

The getting into (of the launched soul into a number of our bodies) like (the multiplication of) the flame of a lamp as a result of thus the scripture declares.

Pradipavat: just like the flame of a lamp; Avesah: getting into, animating; Tatha: thus, so; Hello: as a result of; Darsayati: the scripture exhibits (or declares).

This Sutra exhibits the potential for the liberated soul of concurrently possessing a number of our bodies apart from his personal.

In Sutra 11 it has been proven {that a} launched soul can assume many our bodies on the identical time for enjoyment.

A doubt arises whether or not the our bodies which the launched create for themselves when rendering themselves threefold and so forth are soulless like picket figures or animated by souls just like the our bodies of males.

The Purvapakshin maintains that as neither the soul nor the thoughts may be divided, they’re joined with one physique solely, whereas different our bodies are soulless. Different our bodies are lifeless puppets. Enjoyment is feasible solely in that physique wherein the soul and thoughts exist.

This Sutra refutes this view and says, Just like the flame of a lamp of their getting into i.e., simply because the one flame of a lamp can enter into completely different wicks lighted from it, the launched soul, though one solely, multiplies itself by means of its lordly energy and enters into all these our bodies. It creates our bodies with inside organs akin to the unique inside organs and being restricted by these divides itself as many. Subsequently, all of the created our bodies have a soul which renders enjoyment by means of all of those our bodies doable. Scripture declares that on this means one could turn into many. He’s onefold, he’s threefold, fivefold, sevenfold (Chh. Up. VII.6.2).

The Yoga Sastras additionally make the identical affirmation.

Svapyayasampattyoranyatara-

pekshamavishkritam hello IV.4.16 (549)

(The declaration of absence of all cognition is made) having in view both of the 2 states, viz., deep sleep and absolute union (with Brahman), for that is made clear (by the scriptures).

Svapyayasampattyoh: of deep sleep and absolute union (with Brahman); Anyatarapeksham: having in view both of those two; Avishkritam: that is made clear (by the Sruti); Hello: as a result of. (Svapyaya: deep sleep; Anyatara: both, any of the 2; Apeksham: on the subject of, with regard to.)

The vary of information of the liberated soul is now mentioned.

The Purvapakshin holds: How can lordly energy, enabling the launched soul to enter into a number of our bodies and revel in be admitted if we take into account the completely different scriptural texts which declare that the soul in that state has not any particular cognition? e.g., What ought to one know and thru what? (Bri. Up. II.4.14). However there may be not the second factor separate from it which it may possibly know (Bri. Up. IV.3.30). It turns into like water, one, witness and with no second (Bri. Up. IV.3.32).

This Sutra says that these texts refer both to the state of deep sleep or to that of ultimate launch wherein the soul attains absolute union with the Nirguna Brahman.

These passages then again, which describe lordly energy seek advice from an altogether completely different situation which just like the heavenly world, is an abode the place information of Saguna Brahman produces its outcomes.

We’ve got been discussing within the earlier Sutras about one who has not attained absolute union with Nirguna Brahman however solely Brahmaloka. There’s cognition in Brahmaloka. There’s enjoyment additionally in heaven. The distinction between heaven and Brahmaloka is that one doesn’t return to this world from Brahmaloka whereas one returns to this universe from heaven when the outcomes of his virtuous deeds have been exhausted.

JAGADVYAPARADHIKARANAM: TOPIC 7 (SUTRAS 17-22)

The liberated soul which has attained Brahmaloka

has all of the lordly powers besides the facility of creation

Jagadvyaparavarjam prakaranadasannihitattvaccha IV.4.17 (550)

(The liberated soul attains all lordly powers) besides the facility of creation, and so on., on account of (the Lord being) the subject material (of all texts the place creation, and so on., are referred to) and (the liberated souls) not being talked about (in that connection).

Jagadvyaparavarjam: besides the facility of creation, and so on., Prakaranat: (on account of the Lord being) the subject material, due to the overall matter of the chapter; Asannihitattvat: on account of (liberated souls) not being talked about on account of non-proximity; Cha: and. (Jagat: world; Vyapara: creation and so on.; Varjam: excepted.)

The constraints of the launched souls’ energy are said right here.

A doubt right here presents itself whether or not those that by means of meditation on the Saguna Brahman enter Brahmaloka possess limitless lordly energy or energy restricted to some extent.

The Purvapakshin maintains that their powers should be limitless, as a result of we meet with texts equivalent to They will roam at will in all of the worlds (Chh. Up. VII.25.2; VIII.1.6). He obtains self-lordship (Tait. Sam. I.6.2). To him all of the gods provide worship (Tait. Sam. I.5.3). For him there may be freedom in all worlds (Chh. Up. VIII.1.6).

This Sutra says that the liberated souls attain all lordly powers equivalent to Anima, rendering oneself to atomic dimension, and so on., besides the facility of creation, and so on. Creation, preservation and destruction, then again can belong to the everlastingly excellent Lord solely. Why so? As a result of the Lord is the subject material of all of the texts coping with creation, and so on., whereas the launched souls usually are not talked about in any respect on this connection.

Additional, this might result in many Isvaras. If they’ve the facility of creation of the universe they will not be of 1 thoughts. There could also be battle of wills with respect to creation, and so on. One could need to create, and one other to destroy. Such conflicts can solely be prevented by assuming that the desires of 1 ought to conform to these of one other and from this it follows that every one different souls rely upon the Highest Lord.

Therefore the powers of the launched souls usually are not absolute however restricted and are depending on the need of the Lord.

Pratyakshopadesaditi

chennadhikarikamandalasthokteh IV.4.18 (551)

If or not it’s stated that the liberated soul attains absolute powers on account of direct instructing of the scriptures, we are saying no; as a result of the scriptures declare that the liberated soul attains Him who entrusts the solar, and so on., with their places of work and abides in these spheres.

Pratyakshopadesat: on account of direct instructing; Iti: so, thus; Chet: if; (Iti chet: if or not it’s stated); Na: not; Adhikarikamandala- sthokteh: as a result of the scripture declares that the soul attains Him who entrusts the solar, and so on., with their places of work and abodes in these spheres. (Adhikarika: the grasp of a world, a world-ruler; Mandalastha: present in spheres, i.e., these abiding within the spheres, of these entrusted with the particular features; Ukteh: as it’s clearly said in Sruti.)

An objection to Sutra 17 is raised and refuted.

This Sutra consists of two components, specifically an objection and its reply. The objection portion is, Pratyakshopadesat; the reply portion is Nadhikarikamandalasthokteh.

He turns into the Lord of himselfApnoti svarajyam (Tait. Up. I.6). From the direct instructing of the Sruti the Purvapakshin maintains that the restricted soul attains absolute powers.

This current Sutra refutes this and says that his powers rely upon the Lord, as a result of the textual content cited additional on says, He attains the Lord of the thoughts, the Lord who dwells in spheres just like the solar, and so on., and entrusts the solar, and so on., with places of work.

Subsequently, it’s fairly clear from this latter a part of the textual content that the liberated soul obtains its powers from the Lord and is determined by Him. Therefore its powers usually are not limitless. He attains powers because the present of the Supreme Lord who’s within the solar, and so on., and who bestows the operate of controlling the orb of the solar, on the sun-god.

Vikaravarti cha tatha hello sthitimaha IV.4.19 (552)

And (there’s a type of the Supreme Lord) which is past all created issues (as a result of, so the scripture declares) (His) existence (in a two-fold kind unmanifest and manifest).

Vikaravarti: which is past all effected issues, turns into incapable of transformation by start, decay, loss of life, and so on.; Cha: and; Tatha: so; Hello: as a result of; Sthitim: standing, situation, existence; Aha: (Sruti) declares.

The outline of the standing of the liberated soul is sustained.

In keeping with scripture, there may be additionally an inside type of the Supreme Lord, which doesn’t abide in results. He’s not solely the ruling soul of the spheres of the solar and so forth which lie throughout the sphere of what’s effected.

The textual content declares this abiding in a two-fold kind as follows: Such is the greatness of it; larger than that’s the Purusha; one foot of Him is all beings; His different three toes are what’s immortal in heaven (Chh. Up. III.12.6).

This textual content intimates that the Highest Lord abides in two types, the transcendental and the relative.

He who meditates on the Lord in His relative side doesn’t attain the transcendental side. He who worships the Lord as having kind can not attain the formless Brahman, due to the legislation of proportion of fruit to need. The Sruti declares As one meditates upon That, so he turns into.

Because the meditator on the relative points of the Lord is unable to grasp it totally, he attains solely restricted powers and never limitless powers just like the Lord Himself.

Darsayataschaivam pratyakshanumane IV.4.20 (553)

And thus notion and inference present.

Darsayatah: they each present; Cha: and; Evam: thus; Pratyaksha-anumane: Pratyaksha and Anumana, notion and inference.

This Sutra declares that the transcendental side of the Lord is established by each the Sruti and Smriti. Sruti and Smriti each declare that the best mild doesn’t abide inside effected factor, The solar doesn’t shine there, nor the moon and the celebrities, nor these lightnings and far much less this hearth (Mun. Up. II.2.10). The solar doesn’t illumine it, nor the moon, nor hearth (Bhagavad Gita, XV.6).

Bhogamatrasamyalingaccha IV.4.21 (554)

And due to the indications (within the scriptures) of equality (of the liberated soul with the Lord) solely with respect to enjoyment.

Bhogamatra: with respect to enjoyment solely; Samya: equality; Lingat: from the indication of Sruti; Cha: additionally, and.

That the powers of the liberated soul usually are not limitless can also be recognized from the indication within the Sruti that the equality of those souls with the Lord is barely with regard to enjoyment and never with respect to creation, and so on.

As all beings honour that Deity, so do all beings honour him who is aware of that (Bri. Up. I.5.20). Via it he attains identification with the Deity, or lives in the identical world with it (Bri. Up. I.5.23).

All these texts describe equality solely with regard to enjoyment. They don’t point out something on the subject of creation, and so on.

Anavrittih sabdadanavrittih sabdat IV.4.22 (555)

(There’s) no return (for these liberated souls), on account of the scriptural assertion (to that impact).

Anavrittih: no return; Sabdat: on account of the scriptural assertion.

The dialogue on the privileges of the liberated soul is concluded right here.

The Purvapakshin maintains: If the powers of the liberated souls are restricted, then they too will come to an finish like all restricted mortal beings. Subsequently, the liberated souls must return to this world from Brahmaloka.

This Sutra refutes this and says that those that go to Brahmaloka by the trail of the gods don’t return from there. As a result of scriptural passages train that they don’t so return. Going up by that means, one reaches immortality (Chh. Up. VIII.6.6). Those that proceed on that path don’t return to the lifetime of man (Chh. Up. IV.15.6). He reaches the world of Brahman and doesn’t return (Chh. Up. VII.15.1). They no extra return to this world (Bri. Up. VI.2.15).

The repetition of the phrases No return, and so on., signifies that the e book is completed.

Thus ends the Fourth Pada (Part 4) of the Fourth Chapter (Adhyaya IV) of the Brahma Sutras or the Vedanta Philosophy of Sri Baadarayana or Sri Veda-Vyasa or Sri Krishna-Dvaipayana, the Avatara of Lord Sri Hari. Might His blessings be upon you all.

It is a copy from

https://www.sivanandaonline.org/

[ad_2]

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here